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Antibiotics Don't Prevent Future Urinary Tract Infections, May,Cause Resistance in Future Infections

this study. "But given these findings, it is appropriate for pediatricians to discuss with families the risks and unclear benefits of daily preventive antibiotic treatment after a child has had a first UTI."

UTIs are common in children. In fact, of all the children born in one year, 70,000 to 180,000 will have a UTI by age six.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) practice guideline for management of children after a first UTI recommends an imaging study to evaluate the presence and degree of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), a condition found in approximately 30 to 40 percent of children who have had a UTI. If the child has VUR, daily antibiotic treatment is recommended in an attempt to prevent recurrent UTIs.

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) occurs when urine in the bladder flows back into the ureters or kidneys during urination. It is thought that a child who has VUR is at risk for developing recurrent kidney infections, which, over time, can cause damage to the kidneys. However, Dr. Conway summarized, "The majority of children have lower grade VUR and this lower grade VUR was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent UTI in our study."

Grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Training Program and the University of Pennsylvania Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics supported this study.

Dr. Conway and Dr. Keren's coauthors were Avital Cnaan, Ph.D.; Theoklis Zaoutis, M.D., M.S.C.E.; Brandon V. Henry; and Robert W. Grundmeier, M.D., all of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

About The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was founded in 1855 as the nation's first pediatric hospital. Through its long-standing commitment to providing exceptional patient care, training new generations of pediatric healthcare professionals and pioneering major research initia
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