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An Investigational Study Released at ADA Showed that Initial,Combination Therapy with Januvia (sitagliptin) and Metformin Led to,Improvement in Markers of Beta Cell Function in Patients with Type,2 Diabetes

phenyl)butyl)-5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-3- (trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo(4,3-a)pyrazine phosphate (1:1) monohydrate. The empirical formula is C16H15F6N5O-H3PO4-H2O and the molecular weight is 523.32. The structural formula is: (OBJECT OMITTED) Sitagliptin phosphate is a white to off-white, crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. It is soluble in water and N,N-dimethyl formamide; slightly soluble in methanol; very slightly soluble in ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile; and insoluble in isopropanol and isopropyl acetate. Each film-coated tablet of JANUVIA contains 32.13, 64.25, or 128.5 mg of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate, which is equivalent to 25, 50, or 100 mg, respectively, of free base and the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, and sodium stearyl fumarate. In addition, the film coating contains the following inactive ingredients: polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, talc, titanium dioxide, red iron oxide, and yellow iron oxide. 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Sitagliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor, which is believed to exert its actions in patients with type 2 diabetes by slowing the inactivation of incretin hormones. Concentrations of the active intact hormones are increased by JANUVIA, thereby increasing and prolonging the action of these hormones. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are released by the intestine throughout the day, and levels are increased in response to a meal. These hormones are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme, DPP-4. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells by intracellular
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