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Reportlinker Adds Impact of Counterfeits on Parallel Trade & Pharmaceutical Distribution: Issues, initiatives and insights for supply chain integrity

le East, and South America 79

Africa 81

Middle East 82

Types of drugs targeted by counterfeiters 83

Counterfeits and the pharmaceutical distribution chain 86

Access points for counterfeits 86

Repackaging, wholesaling, and counterfeiting: recent issues 89

Repackaging and counterfeiting 89

Wholesaling and counterfeiting 90

Online pharmacies 90

Unauthorized Internet pharmacies and counterfeits 91

Major producers of counterfeit drugs: China and India 94

China 95

Domestic counterfeiting: recent evidence 96

Contract manufacturing and the risk of counterfeiting 97

The counterfeit route: going West 99

India 99

Factors contributing to copycat & counterfeiting activities 100

The legitimate distribution pathway: problems going West 102

Chapter 4 Anti-counterfeiting strategies: current perspectives 104

Summary 104

Anti-counterfeiting strategies 105

Technical strategies 105

Non-technical strategies 105

Non-technical strategies and counterfeiting: current initiatives 106

Anti-counterfeiting technologies in developed countries 107

Current focus: track-and-trace technologies & mass serialization 109

European Union 109

United States 110

Mass serialization: main technology types 112

Barcodes 112

Radio frequency identification 112

Radio frequency identification in developed countries: recent activities 116

Chemical authentication technologies in developed countries: recent activities and initiatives 117

New packaging technologies 119

Anti-counterfeiting technologies in developing countries 120

Radio frequency identification in developing countries: recent activities 120


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