HARRISBURG, Pa., Nov. 1 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Dr. Walter Cottrell, Pennsylvania Game Commission wildlife veterinarian, today announced that the test result from an adult female deer has confirmed that epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) has been found in Dunbar Township, Fayette County.
Other counties in which EHD has been confirmed this year are: Allegheny; Beaver; Cambria; Greene; Lawrence; Washington; and Westmoreland. EHD also was confirmed in farmed deer in Franklin County, but no wild, free-roaming deer have been found infected with EHD in that or any other counties at this time. Samples from other locations in the state are still pending and will be reported in future updates.
"Our Wildlife Conservation Officers, Land Managers and other field staff have been on the look out for evidence of EHD in wild deer," Dr. Cottrell said. "We urge anyone finding dead deer or sick deer to contact our region offices with specific information.
"Fortunately, the weather has begun to cool. We have had a hard frost in many parts of the state and, wherever it has occurred, it is expected to kill the insects that are spreading the EHD virus."
In southwestern Pennsylvania, which has experienced the majority of confirmed EHD cases, Game Commission Southwest Region Director Matt Hough cautiously breathed a sigh of relief.
"The frost we experienced this week in many parts of the Southwest Region should have killed the midges and the virus in those areas," Hough said. "We will continue to investigate timely reports of deer deaths, but look forward to the continued cooler temperatures of autumn."
Residents in other counties are encouraged to call their respective regions to report dead or sick deer. Contact information is available on page 3 of the 2007-08 Pennsylvania Digest of Hunting and Trapping Regulations, which is presented to each license buyer and the agency's website (http://www.pgc.state.pa.us) under the "Regional Information" section at the bottom of the right-hand side of the homepage.
To provide the public with more information about EHD, the agency has posted an "EHD Update" page on its website (http://www.pgc.state.pa.us). The website also chronicles the agency's news releases issued about this outbreak since Aug. 27.
EHD is a common but sporadic disease in white-tailed deer populations of the United States, and is contracted by the bite of insects called "biting midges." In more northern states, such as Pennsylvania, EHD occurs less often and the deer are less able to mount an effective immune response. The virus usually kills the naive animal within five to 10 days. It is not spread from deer to deer by contact. While EHD is not infectious to humans, deer displaying severe symptoms of EHD are usually not suitable for consumption because of the rapid deterioration of the meat and secondary bacterial infection.
"This outbreak of EHD is more significant than the one in 2002 and has impacted more deer in a larger area," Dr. Cottrell said. "The fact that we found EHD in early August means that the disease has had the opportunity to be active longer this time prior to the first good frost, which is what is needed to kill the insects responsible for spreading the virus.
"Reports of dead or dying deer are important to us. Though an actual body count of afflicted deer is almost impossible to obtain, because of the rapid decomposition and the area where the outbreak is occurring is large, we still value these reports. Also, tissue samples must be extracted within 24 hours of death to be suitable for conducting tests. That is why it is so important that we hear from residents as soon as possible after they find a suspect deer."
Dr. Cottrell noted that, while there is no evidence that humans are at risk from EHD, other diseases could be transmitted by careless hygiene when processing deer.
"As a routine precaution, all hunters are encouraged to wear rubber or latex gloves when handling or field-dressing any animal, and wash their hands and tools thoroughly after field dressing," Dr. Cottrell said. "As with any wild game, meat should always be thoroughly cooked."
Dr. Cottrell stressed that even though some EHD symptoms are similar to those of chronic wasting disease (CWD) - such as excessive drooling, weakness and a loss of fear of humans - there is no relationship between EHD and CWD.
"However, because these diseases coexist, as many of the deer as possible that are submitted for EHD testing also are being tested for CWD," Dr. Cottrell said. "It also is worth noting that like CWD, EHD is one of those diseases whose mortality rate can be amplified by anything that serves to congregate deer, such as supplemental feeding, and placement of salt or mineral blocks. While the disease is not spread through deer to deer contact, congregating animals through feeding does make transmission easier by allowing midges that carry the virus greater access to a larger number of animals in a more confined area. Therefore, such feeding activities should be discontinued immediately.
"The good news from this situation is that the public is reporting these sightings to the Game Commission. Should the state's deer herd be infected with other serious diseases, the Game Commission will need to rely on the continued vigilance of the public so that we can respond in a timely manner."
EHD was first confirmed in Pennsylvania in 2002, when an outbreak caused the death of 70 deer in Greene and Washington counties. That same year, EHD was confirmed in Maryland, Ohio, Virginia and Wisconsin.
In 1996, EHD was suspected to be the cause of death in nearly 25 deer in Adams County, but test results in that case were inconclusive.
It is rare for this virus to cause clinical signs in traditional livestock, such as cattle, sheep or goats. On Oct. 11, the state Agriculture Department announced that it had confirmed EHD in farmed deer in Franklin County. EHD has been confirmed in cattle in Franklin, Somerset and Washington counties, but no mortalities were reported in these cases. As of today, there have been no reports of EHD in wild, free-roaming deer in Franklin or Somerset counties. Anyone who suspects EHD in their livestock should contact their private veterinary practitioner.
Other areas of the United States that have confirmed EHD-related mortalities this year are: Alabama; Colorado; District of Columbia; Georgia; Tennessee; Kansas; Kentucky; Illinois; Indiana; Maryland; Mississippi; Missouri; New Jersey; New York; North Carolina; South Carolina; Texas; Virginia; Ohio; Pennsylvania; and West Virginia.
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|SOURCE Pennsylvania Game Commission|
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