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Depression and Cognitive Disorders: at the Onset of Alzheimer's Disease

Depression and Cognitive Disorders: at the Onset of Alzheimer's Disease

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Depression and Cognitive Disorders: at the Onset of Alzheimer's Disease


BASEL, Switzerland, Oct 4 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ - Neuro-Biotech Corporation (PINKSHEET: MRES) (OTCQB: MRES) introduces a Neuro-biomarker which is linked to a series of Neuro-Bio tests. This will permit to understand the science behind them and how they each will contribute to a progressive clinical investigation involving the input and output of the brain.  All Neuro-biomarkers are expressed with a numeric value to ensure that doctors can rapidly see and comprehend how the results will confirm their diagnoses, therefore allowing them to successfully find and manage the best therapeutical approach.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a chronic disorder that slowly and progressively destroys neurons, was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1906. Even though, the aetiology (the study of the cause) of AD is still unknown, several possibilities such as extracellular β-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins hypothesises were investigated but the results were not conclusive (Zekanowski et al., 2004).  However, new theories related to electrolytes like calcium, magnesium, zinc and their relationships are being studied to find how the neurodegenerative process gradually begins (Bojarski et al., 2008).

The relationship between the dopaminergic and cholinergic mechanisms was first studied in regards to postural tremor in monkeys and circling movements in cats (Poirier et al., 1974) in response to drugs. The measurement of specific enzymes activities as well as the turnover rate of catecholamines and indolamines, allow the understanding of the contribution of ChAT (choline acetyl-transferase) and GAD synthesising enzyme to the Krebs cycle (the metabolic pathway within the cells) in affecting the release of ATP by the mitochondria, responsible for the level of cellular energy that influence the internal and external cellular homeostasis. In this respect, brain specific enzyme activity of ChAT, tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, DOPA /5HTP decarboxylase and DBH and their biochemical parameters were respectively studied in cats and rats using several drugs and electrolytes such as aluminium, calcium, copper, iron etc (Bouchard et al., 1981; Dontigny & Roberge, 1984; Nadeau & Roberge, 1988; Blais & Roberge, 1991; Fortin & Roberge, 1992; Nucloseph et al., 1996).

To further understand the neurobiology of AD through chemical events, memory mechanisms were studied in cats using various learning tests such as "go-no-go discrimination," "delayed response," and "visual discrimination." In normal cats, an increase in the specific ChAT activity corresponds to an increased turnover rate of the neurotransmitters (Kitsikis et al., 1973,1981., Boisvert, 1978; Everett & Roberge, 1981; Vachon et al., 1983).  On the other hand, the inducibility of ChAT (choline acetyl-transferase) was studied in order to understand how neuronutrition with appropriate nutrients will favour the increased acetylcholine release. It was successfully demonstrated by an increase in ChAT activity with nutrients such as cobalamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and neutral amino acids.

Experiments and studies done on several species demonstrated that the brain noradrenergic and cholinergic pathways in the mesolimbic system are in a close relationship with the HPAS Axis: cognitive disorders & depression taming emotions. In this respect, early diagnosis at the age of 35, will allow to distinguish between "senility", "senile dementia" related to age, "vascular dementia" and the malignant disease called "AD"and will later significantly contribute to clarify the real cause of death.  As AD is a multiparametrical and evolutive disease, an appropriate follow-up could be developed based on a neurobio-psycho-socio-environmental approach, to improve the patient's quality of life.

In summary, the ChAT enzyme activity could be induced and following several learning tests, an increase in specific ChAT enzyme activity was observed as well as a significant change in the turnover rate of serotonin and noradrenaline in the structures belonging to the mesolimbic system. With this close relationship with the HPAS Axis (cognitive disorders & depression taming emotions, this clinical feature should be clinically evaluated upon reaching 35 years of age (WHO, 2000). Contact:
Neuro-Biotech Corp.
Dr Claude Poulin
41 61 500 05 16

SOURCE Neuro-Biotech Corp.
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