Navigation Links
Vitamin Extends Life in Yeast, Dartmouth Medical School Researchers Find

Hanover, NH--Imagine taking a vitamin for longevity! Not yet, but a Dartmouth discovery that a cousin of niacin prolongs lifespan in yeast brings the tantalizing possibility a step closer.

The research, reported in the May 4 issue of Cell, shows how a new vitamin extends lifespan in yeast cells, much like calorie restriction does in animals. It could pave the way for developing supplements to benefit humans.

Radical calorie reduction can extend life. Dieting or fasting mice live longer and lowering the glucose that yeast grow on extends their lifespan, according to Dr. Charles Brenner, associate professor of genetics and of biochemistry, who led the research.

If we could do this in humans -- give people a drug or vitamin that would mimic effects of calorie restriction without having to skip lunch -- we would be able to provide some of the benefits of calorie restriction, which are pretty striking in model organisms, said Brenner, also a member of the Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center.

Many benefits, explains Brenner, depend on a family of proteins called sirtuinsdubbed anti-aging gene products for the important roles they play in longevity and energy expenditure, although the precise mechanisms are still being figured out.

His team found that providing a newly discovered vitamin activates the yeast anti-aging gene product Sir2, which resembles sirtuins found in humans. The new work builds on Brenners prior discovery of the vitamin, termed NR (nicotinamide riboside), a natural product found in milk. Like the B3 vitamin, niacin, NR is a precursor to a versatile cellular factor that is vital for all life.

The factor, called NAD, short for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is elevated by calorie restriction. So the researchers set out to develop an intervention to elevate NAD, using yeast cells, whose genes are easy to manipulate. Its surprising that no one was be able to elevate NAD with a small molecule before, Brenner said.

The team discovered two pathways that allow yeast to raise NAD levels with NR, improve their control of gene expression and live longer in the presence of high glucose. One of the pathways is new; the other was previously identified by Brenners lab.

At the molecular level, elevating NAD to turn on Sir2 actually enables the yeast to silence genes that are not supposed to be expressed. In any organism, not all genes are on at once; in yeast, there are sets of genes that Sir2 normally represses.

We showed that that we could improve Sir2-dependent gene silencing with NR and increase the longevity of yeast grown in high glucose conditions, Brenner said.

To test for Sir2 gene repression, the investigators found conditions in which wild-type cells cant accomplish normal gene silencing. Then, when they take up NR through one of the pathways Brenners team discovered, Sir2 gene silencing is restored, and yeast are rejuvenated. Yeast cells formerly capable of dividing 13 times, divided over 23 times when given NR.

Deletion of either pathway makes NR only half as effective as it is when both pathways are intact. So yeast cells seem to use both pathways equally well to lengthen their lifespan. The first NR pathway, described in 2004, consists of a gene common to yeast and humans. In fact, that gene is activated in damaged neurons in order to allow NR to protect against loss of axons. The second NR pathway involves three yeast genes, two of which are found in humans.

Granted that the human anti-aging apparatus is more complex, but animal studies indicate potential. Perhaps the best known sirtuin activator is the red wine compound resveratrol. Overfed mice on high dose resveratrol have healthier livers, better endurance and possibly longer lifespan. While resveratrol and NR work through different mechanisms to increase sirtu in activity, Brenner said, the two compounds could be complementary or synergistic.

More testing remains for NR in humans, but Brenner foresees intriguing possibilities. As a natural product found in milk, we expect the compound to be much safer than most drugs, and to be a more specific remedy than most vitamins.

Though aging itself is not a disease, Brenner anticipates applications in conditions associated with aging including neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and elevating good cholesterol. There are also indications that NR could be a treatment for one type of Candida infection.


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Vitamin B12 can help in detecting cancers
2. Vitamins-The answer to Heart Disease?
3. Vitamin E, the latest warrior against diabetes
4. Vitamin Shields Brittle Bones
5. B Vitamin protects and lowers toxicity of Arthritis Drug
6. B Vitamin Supplementatoin Saves Money and Lives
7. Eat Vitamin C and stay young
8. Vitamin C for the heart
9. Vitamin B for Hepatitis
10. Vitamins reduce pre-eclampsia
11. Vitamin E useful for Alzheimers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... June 19, 2016 is World Sickle Cell Observance Day. In an effort ... holistic treatments, Serenity Recovery Center of Marne, Michigan, has issued a pain ... Disease (SCD) is a disorder of the red blood cells, which can cause episodes ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... Sessions in Dallas that it will receive two significant new grants to support ... as PHA marked its 25th anniversary by recognizing patients, medical professionals and scientists ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Dr. ... accelerated orthodontic treatment. Dr. Cheng has extensive experience with all areas of orthodontics, ... and accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. , Micro-osteoperforation is a revolutionary adjunct to orthodontic ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , ... June 24, 2016 , ... Topical BioMedics, Inc, makers of Topricin and MyPainAway ... call for a minimum wage raise to $12 an hour by 2020 and then adjusting ... restore the lost value of the minimum wage, assure the wage floor does not erode ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Georgia (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... awards today at the Clinical Decision Making in Emergency Medicine conference in Ponte ... have authored journal articles published in Emergency Medicine Practice and Pediatric ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/26/2016)... 2016 Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Nasdaq: ... Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended ("HSR"), ... Inc. ("Celator"; Nasdaq: CPXX ) expired effective ... As previously announced on May 31, 2016, ... agreement under which Jazz Pharmaceuticals has commenced a tender ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... FRANCISCO, Calif. , June 24, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... ), a biopharmaceutical company developing novel therapeutics for ... unmet needs, today announced the closing of its ... of common stock, at the public offering price ... in the offering were offered by GBT. GBT ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Dehaier Medical Systems Ltd. (NASDAQ: ... and sells medical devices and wearable sleep respiratory products ... cooperation agreement with Hongyuan Supply Chain Management Co., Ltd. ... 20, 2016, to develop Dehaier,s new Internet medical technology ... will leverage Hongyuan Supply Chain,s sales platform to reach ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: