Navigation Links
Understanding Basic Motor Skills

Johns Hopkins researchers have induced mutations in mice to understand the various steps involved in learning basic motor skills. // The study mainly aims at following the behavior of two proteins and the specific steps they take to control a neuron's ability to learn by adapting to signals from other nerve cells. The findings were published in the journal Neuron. The study shows how the two proteins PICK1 protein and AMPA receptors interact with specific neurons, called Purkinje cells. These cells are in the lower back part of the brain.

They become de-sensitized to certain molecular signals from neighboring neurons. This process is known as long-term depression (LTD). This process is responsible for several forms of motor learning; one such is the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The vestibulo-ocular reflex coordinates eye movements with head movements, allowing us to perform activities such as reading in a moving automobile. This study unravels the minute details of how LTD occurs. Richard L. Huganir, Ph.D., a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and chair of the Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience at Hopkins analyzed in a detailed manner the mechanism by which PICK1 controls the Purkinje cell's response to the signaling molecule, glutamate. The Purkinje cells swallow up surface proteins called AMPA receptors.

Without AMPA receptors on the surface, these cells cannot respond to signals from neighboring neurons. Researchers now know how PICK1 are involved in the swallowing and removal of AMPA receptors. The investigators used individual nerve cells as well as brain slices from three different populations of genetically modified mice lacking different proteins required for establishing LTD. Mice lacking the PICK1 protein are unable to establish LTD or remove AMPA receptors from cell surfaces. When PICK1 is added artificially back into these neurons, AMPA receptors are removed and LTD is restored, showing that PICK1 is necessary for L TD.

Mice that lack the part of the AMPA receptor that physically interact with PICK1 also do not establish LTD. From these result it is confirmed that PICK1 must physically touch the AMPA receptor for LTD to occur. It is also known that a chemical change to the AMPA receptor, called phosphorylation is necessary for establishing LTD. Mice that lack a small part of the AMPA receptor which is essential for phosphorylation do not undergo LTD. This result confirms that phosphorylation is an essential step toward LTD. Further they plan to study whether LTD is crucial for motor learning.


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Understanding The Predictors Of Prostate Cancer
2. Understanding Restless Legs Syndrome
3. Understanding Lung Cancer Metastasis
4. Understanding The Link Between Hormone Replacement and Respiratory Disease
5. Understanding The Risks Of Hormone Therapy
6. Understanding The Link Between Metabolic Syndrome And Drinking Patterns
7. A Better Understanding Of The Brain Network
8. Understanding The Predictor’s Of Alzheimer’s Diseae
9. Understanding The Harmful Effects Of Radiation Exposure
10. Understanding The Origin Of Tumors
11. Understanding Insulin Resistance
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:12/2/2016)... ... December 02, 2016 , ... U.S. Surgeon General, Dr. Vivek Murthy, ... Murthy explains how he was inspired to practice medicine at an early age by ... about more than making diagnoses and prescribing medicine,” he states. “It is about building ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... York, NY (PRWEB) , ... December 02, 2016 , ... ... high school and while 84 percent of parents report speaking with their child about ... pornography and sexually transmitted diseases. , Mediaplanet is proud to announce the launch of ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... ... December 02, 2016 , ... Universal Medical Systems, ... and the first company to offer robotic imaging to veterinary medicine is sponsoring ... # 941 for the American Association of Equine Practitioners 62nd Annual Convention from ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... ... December 02, 2016 , ... "Pro3rd Accents Volume 2 is a ... versatile lower third titles with just a few clicks of the mouse," said Christina ... 30 lower third animations. Choose from various styles with accented animations, rigid boxes, simplistic ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... ... December 02, 2016 , ... Date aired: ... of Type 2 Diabetes: The Owner’s Manual, http://realtimepressrelease.com/press-releases-tagged-with/daryl-wein , Sharon ... of Water, Global Climate Change and Your Health radio program syndicated on Voice ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:12/2/2016)... bioLytical Laboratories, ein Weltführer bei schnellen Tests für Infektionskrankheiten, hat sein ... eingeführt. Continue Reading ... ... , ... ) bioLytical wurde durch die Clinton Health Access ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... Dec. 2, 2016 Boston Scientific Corporation (NYSE: ... to acquire certain manufacturing assets and capabilities of the ... advanced biological tissue business, as well as a 15% ... million in cash. The Neovasc advanced biological tissue business ... Boston Scientific Lotus™ Valve System. * Upon completion ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... Lianluo Smart Limited (Nasdaq: ... develops, markets and sells medical devices and wearable ... and international markets, recently attended the 2016 ... Progress Forum, co-hosted by the Institute of Interventional ... Guangdong Provincial People,s Hospital and Cardiology Department of ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: