Navigation Links
Understanding Basic Motor Skills

Johns Hopkins researchers have induced mutations in mice to understand the various steps involved in learning basic motor skills. // The study mainly aims at following the behavior of two proteins and the specific steps they take to control a neuron's ability to learn by adapting to signals from other nerve cells. The findings were published in the journal Neuron. The study shows how the two proteins PICK1 protein and AMPA receptors interact with specific neurons, called Purkinje cells. These cells are in the lower back part of the brain.

They become de-sensitized to certain molecular signals from neighboring neurons. This process is known as long-term depression (LTD). This process is responsible for several forms of motor learning; one such is the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The vestibulo-ocular reflex coordinates eye movements with head movements, allowing us to perform activities such as reading in a moving automobile. This study unravels the minute details of how LTD occurs. Richard L. Huganir, Ph.D., a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and chair of the Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience at Hopkins analyzed in a detailed manner the mechanism by which PICK1 controls the Purkinje cell's response to the signaling molecule, glutamate. The Purkinje cells swallow up surface proteins called AMPA receptors.

Without AMPA receptors on the surface, these cells cannot respond to signals from neighboring neurons. Researchers now know how PICK1 are involved in the swallowing and removal of AMPA receptors. The investigators used individual nerve cells as well as brain slices from three different populations of genetically modified mice lacking different proteins required for establishing LTD. Mice lacking the PICK1 protein are unable to establish LTD or remove AMPA receptors from cell surfaces. When PICK1 is added artificially back into these neurons, AMPA receptors are removed and LTD is restored, showing that PICK1 is necessary for L TD.

Mice that lack the part of the AMPA receptor that physically interact with PICK1 also do not establish LTD. From these result it is confirmed that PICK1 must physically touch the AMPA receptor for LTD to occur. It is also known that a chemical change to the AMPA receptor, called phosphorylation is necessary for establishing LTD. Mice that lack a small part of the AMPA receptor which is essential for phosphorylation do not undergo LTD. This result confirms that phosphorylation is an essential step toward LTD. Further they plan to study whether LTD is crucial for motor learning.


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Understanding The Predictors Of Prostate Cancer
2. Understanding Restless Legs Syndrome
3. Understanding Lung Cancer Metastasis
4. Understanding The Link Between Hormone Replacement and Respiratory Disease
5. Understanding The Risks Of Hormone Therapy
6. Understanding The Link Between Metabolic Syndrome And Drinking Patterns
7. A Better Understanding Of The Brain Network
8. Understanding The Predictor’s Of Alzheimer’s Diseae
9. Understanding The Harmful Effects Of Radiation Exposure
10. Understanding The Origin Of Tumors
11. Understanding Insulin Resistance
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/24/2017)... ... March 24, 2017 , ... ... (ONS) wanted to create a communications platform that positions them as the go-to ... and ONS reinvented their online publication as an always-on, always-fresh news, views and ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... ... March 24, 2017 , ... The law firm of ... is pleased to announce Westchester resident Lauren C. Enea has joined the firm as ... firm, will concentrate her practice in elder law, Medicaid planning and applications, and Wills, ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... ... March 24, 2017 , ... Empower Brokerage, ... their training and leads programs. , In February, 2017, Empower Brokerage introduced their ... Performance Partners is designed to teach how to maximize their sales efforts, as ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... ... 2017 , ... “End Time GPS”: a dauntless and enlightened study of ... GPS” is the creation of published author, Wesley Gerboth, a World War II veteran, ... space-vehicle projects. Now, at age ninety-one, he shares the Wisdom God bestowed upon him ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... ... March 24, 2017 , ... “The Adventures of Joey, The Dog ... dog who lives his life to the fullest, as God intended. “The Adventures of ... Holmgren, a mother and grandmother pursuing her passion for writing, especially about truth and ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:3/24/2017)...   The Accreditation Council for Medical Affairs ... the pharmaceutical industry has appointed Dr. Jane ... formed scientific advisory board. Dr. Chin will be ... ever medical affairs think tank within the pharmaceutical ... ACMA, please visit  www.medicalaffairsspecialist.org .  Connect with ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... FinancialBuzz.com News Commentary  ... According to new data published Arcview ... legal cannabis market is projected to continue to grow at ... the current presidential administration. The report created by Arcview,s data ... growth in this industry are the passage and subsequent implementation ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... their offering. ... pipeline is very strong with a total of 97 drug candidates. Pharma ... Sanofi are involved in the development of the IPF therapeutics. The IPF ... III stage, 15 are in Phase II stage, 12 are in Phase ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: