Navigation Links
Understanding Basic Motor Skills

Johns Hopkins researchers have induced mutations in mice to understand the various steps involved in learning basic motor skills. // The study mainly aims at following the behavior of two proteins and the specific steps they take to control a neuron's ability to learn by adapting to signals from other nerve cells. The findings were published in the journal Neuron. The study shows how the two proteins PICK1 protein and AMPA receptors interact with specific neurons, called Purkinje cells. These cells are in the lower back part of the brain.

They become de-sensitized to certain molecular signals from neighboring neurons. This process is known as long-term depression (LTD). This process is responsible for several forms of motor learning; one such is the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The vestibulo-ocular reflex coordinates eye movements with head movements, allowing us to perform activities such as reading in a moving automobile. This study unravels the minute details of how LTD occurs. Richard L. Huganir, Ph.D., a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and chair of the Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience at Hopkins analyzed in a detailed manner the mechanism by which PICK1 controls the Purkinje cell's response to the signaling molecule, glutamate. The Purkinje cells swallow up surface proteins called AMPA receptors.

Without AMPA receptors on the surface, these cells cannot respond to signals from neighboring neurons. Researchers now know how PICK1 are involved in the swallowing and removal of AMPA receptors. The investigators used individual nerve cells as well as brain slices from three different populations of genetically modified mice lacking different proteins required for establishing LTD. Mice lacking the PICK1 protein are unable to establish LTD or remove AMPA receptors from cell surfaces. When PICK1 is added artificially back into these neurons, AMPA receptors are removed and LTD is restored, showing that PICK1 is necessary for L TD.

Mice that lack the part of the AMPA receptor that physically interact with PICK1 also do not establish LTD. From these result it is confirmed that PICK1 must physically touch the AMPA receptor for LTD to occur. It is also known that a chemical change to the AMPA receptor, called phosphorylation is necessary for establishing LTD. Mice that lack a small part of the AMPA receptor which is essential for phosphorylation do not undergo LTD. This result confirms that phosphorylation is an essential step toward LTD. Further they plan to study whether LTD is crucial for motor learning.


Related medicine news :

1. Understanding The Predictors Of Prostate Cancer
2. Understanding Restless Legs Syndrome
3. Understanding Lung Cancer Metastasis
4. Understanding The Link Between Hormone Replacement and Respiratory Disease
5. Understanding The Risks Of Hormone Therapy
6. Understanding The Link Between Metabolic Syndrome And Drinking Patterns
7. A Better Understanding Of The Brain Network
8. Understanding The Predictor’s Of Alzheimer’s Diseae
9. Understanding The Harmful Effects Of Radiation Exposure
10. Understanding The Origin Of Tumors
11. Understanding Insulin Resistance
Post Your Comments:

(Date:10/13/2015)... ... 13, 2015 , ... The added calories and sugar in an average trick-or-treat ... a parent to do? Registered dietitians from Retrofit , the leading corporate weight ... year. , “Halloween is a high-calorie holiday,” said Dara Aronow, Registered Dietitian, Retrofit. ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... 2015 , ... Vision Group Holdings, the largest LASIK provider in North America, ... The LASIK Vision Institute and TLC Laser Eye Centers, Vision Group Holdings has performed ... correction. , Global Laser Vision will continue to operate in San Diego as it ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... ... the United States, today announced the release of its limited edition holiday seasonal ... Cocktail Agua Fresca. All feature the unique flavor combinations and delicious taste Califia ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... 13, 2015 , ... ProText Kinetic Panel is a typography creation tool made ... can create energetic text animations in any layout without the use of keyframes. Using ... timeline and stylize the text. With intuitive on-screen controls, users can re-position and scale ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... Williamsport, PA (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2015 , ... ... (SH) 2015 utility costs were 36 percent lower per square foot than in 2009. ... the actual cost of heating and cooling has decreased by eight percent. , ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/13/2015)... , Oct. 13, 2015  The spine division ... leader in musculoskeletal healthcare, will showcase its portfolio of ... Spine Society (NASS) annual meeting, October 14-17, 2015, in ... also host two clinical events: "Supplemental MIS ... Presentation Wednesday, October 14 12:30 – 1 p.m. ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... N.J. , Oct. 13, 2015  ContraVir ... the "Company"), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the ... announced the closing of its previously announced underwritten ... stock and warrants to purchase up to 3,000,000 ... fixed combined price to the public of $3.00. ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... JOLLA, Calif. , Oct. 13, 2015  Human ... revolutionize the practice of medicine, announced today the launch ... clinical research project that has the potential to transform ... San Diego, CA , at HLI,s headquarters ... in 2016 in other US and International cities. ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: