Navigation Links
UCLA Imaging Study Reveals How Pure Oxygen Harms the Brain

Recent research suggests that inhaling straight oxygen can harm the brain. A new UCLA brain-imaging study reveals how actually it affects.

Published in the edition of Public Library of Science (PLoS) Medicine, the findings fly in the face of national guidelines for medical practice and recommend a new approach adding carbon dioxide to the gas mix to preserve brain function in patients.

"For decades, the medical community has championed 100 percent oxygen as the gold standard for resuscitation. But no one has reported what happens inside our brains when we inhale pure oxygen," explained Ronald Harper, distinguished professor of neurobiology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. "What we discovered adds to a compelling body of evidence for modifying a widely practiced standard of care in the United States."

Harper's team used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to capture detailed pictures of what occurs inside the human brain during two different breathing scenarios. The technique detects subtle increases in blood flow triggered by the activation of different parts of the brain, causing these regions to glow or "light up" on the color scan.

The researchers scanned the brains of 14 healthy children, ages 8 15, as they inhaled 100 percent oxygen through a mouthpiece, and monitored their breathing and heart rates. After waiting eight minutes for the youngsters' breathing to return to normal, the team added 5 percent carbon dioxide to the gas mixture and repeated the scan.

A comparison of the two scans revealed dramatic differences.

"When the children inhaled pure oxygen, their breathing quickened, resulting in the rapid exhalation of carbon dioxide from their bodies," said coauthor Paul Macey, associate researcher in neurobiology. "The drop in carbon dioxide narrowed their blood vessels, preventing oxygen from reaching tissue in the brain and heart."

That's when something surprising happened on the MRI scan.

Three brain structures suddenly lit up: the hippocampus, which helps control blood pressure; the cingulate cortex, which regulates pain perception and blood pressure; and the insula, which monitors physical and emotional stress.

All this activity awakened the hypothalamus, which regulates heart rate and hormonal outflow. Activation of the hypothalamus triggered a cascade of harmful reactions and released chemicals that can injure the brain and heart.

"Several brain areas responded to 100 percent oxygen by kicking the hypothalamus into overdrive," explained Harper. "The hypothalamus overreacted by dumping a massive flood of hormones and neurotransmitters into the bloodstream. These chemicals interfere with the heart's ability to pump blood and deliver oxygen the opposite effect you want when you're trying to resuscitate someone."

When the children inhaled the carbon dioxide-oxygen mix, the hypothalamus' hyperactivity vanished from the MRI scan.

"Adding carbon dioxide to the oxygen relaxed the blood vessels, allowed oxygen to reach the heart and brain, calmed the hypothalamus and slowed the release of dangerous chemicals," said Macey.

"Pure oxygen kindles the match that fuels a forest fire of harm to the body," said Harper. "But a little whiff of carbon dioxide makes it all go away."

Based on their findings, the researchers strongly encourage healthcare providers to add carbon dioxide to oxygen dispensation, especially when resuscitating infants or administering oxygen for more than a few minutes. The new direction could hold particular implications for patients of stroke, heart attack, carbon monoxide poisoning and any long-term oxygen therapy.

"When in doubt about a case, the current medical approach is to increase oxygen levels and wait to see if the patient improves," explained Harper. "But no one has ever scanned patients' brains to examine how they respond to oxygen therapy."

Earlier data on high oxygen's harmful effects have already resulted in policy changes overseas. Instead of using straight oxygen, many European hospitals now resuscitate patients with room air, which contains a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide; or with a blend of oxygen and carbon dioxide.


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Imaging Modality That Might Help Diagnose Depression
2. Being Obese Increases Ones Risk Of A wrong Diagnosis During Medical Imaging
3. Optical Imaging Added To Ultrasound To Improve Imaging Of Breast Cancer
4. Using Eyes As The Line Of Reference For Fetal Brain Imaging
5. Three In One Ultrasound Probe For 3-D Imaging Of Heart And Tissue Destruction Developed
6. New Computerized Imaging Systems Help In Better Dental Treatment Planning
7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Now Be Used For Mind Reading
8. New Cardiac Angiography Technique For Improved Imaging Of Coronary Veins
9. Brain Is More Active While Hiding The Truth, Reveals fMRI Imaging
10. 3-D Imaging For Monitoring Reactor Systems, Power Plants
11. Brian Imaging Can Foretell Results Of Treating Depression
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/24/2016)... ... May 24, 2016 , ... Tuesday, May 24, Women's Excellence ... practice enhanced with Young Living Essential Oils, taught by Patti Dolan, RYT, a ... Orion location. Yoga Flow is 6:30pm - 7:15pm followed by a small intro to ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... ... launched the #perioddrama campaign to mark Menstrual Hygiene Day on May 28 and raise ... do not have access to a toilet, even when they’re on their periods. , WaterAid ... (sometimes hilarious) results help shine a light on the awkwardness that women face while menstruating, ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... May 24, 2016 , ... Local ... Republic on September 21, 2016. Dr. Gerard, who holds a Doctorate of Chiropractic ... not-for-profit organization promoting health and wellness in Third World countries where resources are ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... ... The Dream Builders Project, a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization based in Los Angeles, ... Mexico on Saturday, May 21st. The volunteers took the children out for the day ... 15 volunteers traveled from Los Angeles to Tijuana, Mexico for the day in the ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... , ... May 24, 2016 , ... The old expression ... the problem. A common injury that’s often misunderstood, whiplash should be swiftly diagnosed and ... Harvard-trained, orthopedic spine surgeon at Atlantic Spine Center . , So named ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/23/2016)... May 23, 2016 Global Paclitaxel ... pages, profiles 12 companies and the Paclitaxel analysis in ... on the industry and its players. This ... in nature, details the current state of the industry ... definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Paclitaxel ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... May 23, 2016 The World Health Organization (WHO) ... device to include adolescents aged 13 years, and above. Effective ... offered for adult and adolescent males in the 14 priority ... PrePex was the first male circumcision device to receive WHO ... Eddy Horowitz said: " The expanded ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... May 23, 2016   Purdue Pharma L.P. ... an agreement with Egalet Corporation and Acura Pharmaceuticals, ... part of the agreement the companies will exchange ... all three companies to develop and sell several ... "This agreement reflects the commitment of Purdue Pharma ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: