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Tobacco Menace and What can Be Done About It

Chronic obstructive lung diseases (Prevalent cases) 14,000,000 3,700,000
Ecological Observation of Smoking Prevalence and various cancers showed a definite strength of association as represented by an increase in relative risk ranged from 3.8 to 14.2, specificity as represented by demonstration of chemical carcinogens off all stages (initiation progression till loss of apoptosis) and coherence as demonstrated in many of the epidemiological studies.

1. The Consistency of the Association: In 1984 surgeon general's report, 29 retrospective and 7 prospective studies have all demonstrated an association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Similar findings had thus reported from a large number of studies by different investigators, using different methodological approaches, and in different populations and different diseases.
2. The Strength of the Association: In men, the relative risk ranged from 3.8 to 14.2. In women, the relative risk ranged from 2 to 5 for CVA and IHD. Men and women who smoked one of more packs per day experienced a 25 to 30-fold increased risk of dying from various cancers when compared with non-smokers.
3. Dose-Response Relationship: The existence of a dose-response relationship between smoking and various diseases constitutes further evidence of a causal relationship. Many studies have demonstrated a dose-response relationship between cigarette smoked per day, years of smoking and pack-years of smoking with all tobacco related disorders.

4. Specificity of the Association: As measured by the attributable risk, all the above mentioned studies found a definite association and increased risk for the diseases in smokers.
5. Temporal Relationship: The average latency for the development of COPD
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