Navigation Links
Tobacco Companies Obstructed Science

"Doubt is our product," stated a tobacco industry memo from 1969. For half a century, the tobacco industry tried to muddy// the link between smoking and cancer. Now, with that effort long since failed, cigarette producers facing dozens of potentially ruinous lawsuits are once again attempting to manufacture doubt.

"The tobacco industry is now trying to win their cases by rewriting history, saying that everyone knew but no one had proof," said Robert N. Proctor, a professor of history at Stanford. "What they're saying is that everyone always knew it was bad for you. So if you started smoking in 1962 or 1972 and later got lung cancer, you have only yourself to blame."

Proctor will speak February 18 during a symposium-"The Sociopolitical Manufacturing of Scientific Ignorance"-at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in San Francisco.

Proctor claims that by the middle of the 1950s there was a scientific consensus that smoking caused lung cancer. But the tobacco industry fought that finding, both in the public eye and within the scientific community. Tobacco companies funded skeptics, started health reassurance campaigns, ran advertisements in medical journals and researched alternate explanations for lung cancer, such as pollution, asbestos and even the keeping of birds. Denying the case against tobacco was "closed," they called for more research as a tactic to delay regulation.

Drawing from his experiences as an expert witness in tobacco litigation cases, Proctor says that industry lawyers often claim that "government propaganda," such as warnings from the Surgeon General, was so overwhelming that the risks of smoking were universally known. But they excuse the industry's own counter-propaganda by arguing that the scientific community was unable to prove a link between smoking and lung cancer until relatively recently. If true, this lack of proof would absolve the tobacco companies of any blame for deaths caused by smoking and any charges of fraud for their campaign against the link between cancer and cigarettes.

"But if they were lying and if people actually believed their lies," Proctor said, "then the industry can be held liable because they were manufacturing a defective and fraudulent product."

Proctor has used poll results stretching back to the 1940s to show that in fact some people were ignorant of the risks. "Millions of people in the '60s, '70s and '80s didn't know that tobacco caused lung cancer or heart disease," Proctor said. "An increasing number knew, but not everyone knew. And not everyone knew because the industry was manufacturing doubt, fomenting ignorance. Industry executives created a climate of untruth that people bought into and died from."

Proctor also has delved into the phone logs and correspondence records of tobacco companies to look at what consumers were thinking. "Even in the 1970s and '80s, lots of people are writing letters to the industry saying, 'The government is brainwashing me into thinking tobacco is bad, whereas I have a grandmother who lived to be 82 and she smokes, and I've smoked for years and I'm still healthy."'

In an age when nearly everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, it might not seem important to study the ways the tobacco companies sowed doubt. But Big Tobacco's methods have since been exported to other industries. At the same symposium, University of California-San Diego history and science studies Professor Naomi Oreskes will discuss a similar topic in a talk titled "Confounding Science: The Tobacco Road to Global Warming," and journalist Paul Thacker will give a talk titled "Thank You for Polluting: How Campaigns to Create Scientific Confusion Kill Product Regulation."

How can tactics like these undermine the work of so many scientists? Proctor said: "There's a saying in the PR business that for every PhD there's an equal and opposite PhD. And if there's not one then you can create one through funding. And if you put a lot of money into manufacturing ignorance, it can actually work.

"We saw this in tobacco, and we've seen it in polluting industries and global warming," he added. "There are lots of people out there who'd rather have you not know what's really going on."

Source-Eurekalert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Tobacco chewing leads to dental caries
2. Tobacco and alcohol connected to larger health problems
3. Vegetables decrease Tobacco Toxins
4. Exposure To Tobacco Smoke Can Lead To Sickle Cell Crisis
5. Tobacco Found To Trigger Familial Pancreatic Cancer
6. Tobacco smoke increases the levels of Cox 2.
7. Aggressive Tobacco taxation policy can reduce cigarette smoking
8. Role Of Tobacco In Development Of Oral Cancer And Heart Disease
9. Women More Prone To Risk of Colorectal Cancer from Tobacco
10. WHO Intensifies Anti-Tobacco war
11. New Zealand Researchers Call For Tobacco-Free Society
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/26/2017)... ... May 26, 2017 , ... Water damage to the flooring of several ... had left education officials with a number of critical issues to address before students ... to be accomplished with little or no disruption to class schedules. Second, the project ...
(Date:5/24/2017)... ... May 24, 2017 , ... In modern research, success depends ... instruments for research and understanding the basic principles that were designed to drive ... innovations in stereo microscopy for brightfield and fluorescence typically used in laboratories working ...
(Date:5/24/2017)... ... 24, 2017 , ... Altec Products, Inc., a leader in enterprise ... one-day technology conference in San Diego, CA. , At nVerge 2017, Altec will ... utilize and enhance their Sage ERP solutions by providing improved visibility and control to ...
(Date:5/24/2017)... ... May 24, 2017 , ... Drs. ... NY, who have now spent 10 years as clinical instructors for the reputable ... College of Dentistry. Through the program, private practitioners receive cutting-edge clinical training and ...
(Date:5/24/2017)... ... , ... Patients who want to receive cosmetic dentistry procedures such as Invisalign® ... for a consultation, with or without a referral. Dr. Bedich enjoys improving the appearance ... , Dr. Bedich offers a variety of cosmetic dentistry services at his practice that ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/10/2017)... MARLBOROUGH, Mass., May 10, 2017 Hologic, Inc. ... financial results for the fiscal second quarter ended April ... (EPS) of $1.84 increased 666.7% compared to the prior ... business resulted in a significant gain, while non-GAAP diluted ... increased 3.2%, or 3.8% in constant currency terms.  Excluding ...
(Date:5/10/2017)... Md. , May 10, 2017 CSSi, ... solutions for the clinical research industry, is proud to ... www.CSSiEnroll.com . The new website features both enriched content ... user experience and enhances the company,s already well-established position ... industry. "After many months of hard ...
(Date:5/9/2017)... 9, 2017  Semler Scientific, Inc. (OTCQB: SMLR), ... to improve the clinical effectiveness and efficiency of ... first quarter ended March 31, 2017. ... customers to identify when preventive care options are ... like heart attacks or strokes occur," said ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: