Navigation Links
Three-Dimensional Image Of AIDS Virus – BY FSU Researcher

Florida State University, has developed a three-dimensional image of the AIDS virus, with lots of protein spikes on its surface, which aids in fusing// with human immune cells – An extraordinary work since past 25 year when it was diagnosed.

Findings from this AIDS research could boost the development of vaccines that will thwart infection by targeting and crippling the sticky HIV-1 spike proteins. In fact, said principal investigator and FSU Professor Kenneth H. Roux, at least two laboratories already are crafting vaccine candidates based on preliminary results uncovered by his team of structural biologists.

Those results are described in the online edition of the journal Nature. Never before generated in such intricate detail, the super-sized images of the virus and its viral spikes have given researchers their first good look at the pathogen's complex molecular surface architecture that facilitates the infection process.

‘Until now, despite intensive study by many laboratories, the design details of the spikes and their distribution pattern on the surface of the virus membrane have been poorly understood, which has limited our understanding of how the virus infection actually occurs and frustrated efforts to create vaccines,’ Roux said.

To produce the images, research associate Ping Zhu, Roux, and their colleagues used a state-of-the art technique called cryoelectron microscopy tomography. It generates three-dimensional images similar to those from a CAT scan, but at the level of viruses and molecules rather than tissues and organs.

They imaged HIV samples as well as a mutant SIV (non-human primate) strain, genetically engineered for the study by collaborators at the National Cancer Institute to express about 74 spikes as opposed to the 14 found on the HIV virus –- more spikes make it easier to work with. The virus samples were suspended in a thin liquid film stretched across the holes of a small copper gri d and then flash-frozen, creating a solid form of ice that is more like clear glass than the typical crystalline form in ice cubes.

Once inside the electron microscope, electrons bombarded the samples from myriad angles, magnifying it more than 43,000 times to reveal its surprising structure –- absent the degree of distortion caused by the more typical imaging methods involving drying and staining of specimens.

As a result, the researchers were able to hone in on the envelope –- the lipid membrane covering the virus itself. They imaged the spikes protruding from the envelope, which contain the only viral protein molecules on the HIV surface. The FSU scientists also were able to capture super-sized images of both the head of the spike and its supporting stalk. The spike head is responsible for binding the virus to the target cell. Its stalk is responsible for the fusion event in which HIV injects its genes into the human host cells for which the virus has a natural affinity –- T lymphocytes and macrophages.

‘Antibodies that effectively bind to either of these spike parts will neutralize the virus to prevent infection,’ said Roux, a member of FSU's biological science faculty since 1978.

His biggest surprise: the stalk has legs.

‘Researchers thought the spike stalk was comprised of a tight collection of three rods bound together with the head of the spike perched on top. But our images reveal that the stalk is split into three legs, spread more like a tripod, which increases their contact with the viral membrane,’ Roux said. ‘Seeing the tripod stalk suggests a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 is able to so effectively fuse with our cells. That essential knowledge should help us design better weapons to fight the virus.’

FSU Arts and Sciences Dean Joseph Travis has declared the work ‘a beautiful example of what happens when strong, sound basic science is applied to a very difficult problem.’

The National Institutes of Health funded the two-year study, conducted by members of the department of biological science and the Institute of Molecular Biophysics at FSU.

AIDS has produced one of the worst pandemics ever known. About 25 million people have died and 40 million are infected worldwide –- including 1 million in the United States.

Source Eurekalert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Parents Encourage Stereotype Body Images
2. Sexy Images and Lingerie Challenge A Man’s Decision Making Skill
3. Image-Guided Biopsy Can Alter Clinical Decisions In Kidney Patients
4. Coronal Multiplanar Reformatted Images to Replace the Conventional Ones
5. Do Food Images Encourage Binge Eating and Obesity ?
6. Body Image Reflects Mood Disorder In Adolescents - Study Finds
7. Satellite Imagery to monitor the Social Impact Of Geographical Changes
8. Sensor Images Show Soaring Temperature and Pollution Levels in UK
9. Brain Images Show Hysteria Not an Imaginary Disorder
10. 3 –D Image of Influenza Virus – A Definite Breakthrouh
11. New Computed Imaging Technique Uses Hazy Images to Improve View
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/27/2016)... ... 2016 , ... Two director-level employees of Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of ... 2016 honorees. The award recognizes businesswomen who excel in their fields and who ... the MLTSS (Managed Long-Term Services and Supports) Program at Horizon NJ Health and Theresa ...
(Date:5/27/2016)... ... 2016 , ... With over 60 percent of acute stroke survivors being left ... to aid in the rehabilitation process has steadily increased. Ekso Bionics had been working ... due to stroke. , Ekso Bionics has now received clearance from the U.S. Food ...
(Date:5/27/2016)... ... May 27, 2016 , ... ... help educate the many who are unaware of the plight of aphasia. In ... run within the “Stroke Awareness” campaign. , The link between stroke and aphasia ...
(Date:5/27/2016)... ... May 27, 2016 , ... Aimed at nurses and employees in ... come courtesy of leaders in the nursing and health care industry. It also provides ... associations—namely Abilene Christian University. , As the nursing industry is coming out of ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... May 26, 2016 , ... Despite last week’s media reports hinting at a ... to wait until March 2017 for an interest rate increase, according to Rajeev Dhawan ... Business. , “The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) dot charts are of interest to ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/26/2016)... , May 26, 2016 ... Associated With Both Cost Savings and Overall ... plc (LSE: BTG), an international specialist healthcare company, ... at the 21st Annual Meeting of ISPOR (International ... treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using yttrium-90 glass ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... 25, 2016 According to a ... (3D, 2D, 4D), by Therapeutic Area (Oncology, Cosmeceutical/Plastic Surgery), ... (Medical Device Manufacturers, Hospitals/ Clinics) - Forecast to 2021", ... Animation Market for the forecast period of 2016 to ... Million by 2021 from USD 117.3 Million in 2016, ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... , May 25, 2016  According to Kalorama Information, ... billion in 2015.  Though these are challenging times ... opportunity for success for companies that remain optimistic ... of new growth prospects medical device companies spend ... and development (R&D) than do companies in other ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: