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Targeting SOCS-3 can Control Obesity

A new research demonstrates how obesity causes the breakdown of a brain system that regulates appetite. The study also points// to a key gene as a possible target for new drug therapies to help individuals lose weight.

More than 60 percent of American adults are overweight and around 30 percent are obese. The study conducted by scientists at the Oregon National Primate Research Center is published in the March issue of Cell Metabolism.

The research provides new understanding of leptin resistance. Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells. It can suppress food intake by affecting brain cells that control appetite. However, high levels of leptin which can be found in severely overweight individuals, can lead to leptin resistance. Leptin resistance means that the body no longer responds to the hormone's weight suppressing effects.

The research was conducted in mice and involved two separate groups that were fed high-fat and low-fat diets. Over time, the high-fat diet group developed symptoms of diabetes and obesity, as is often the case in humans. The low-fat diet group did not develop these health problems.

"This research demonstrates how a portion of the hypothalamus of the brain, called the arcuate nucleus, is negatively impacted by an overabundance of leptin," explained Michael Cowley, Ph.D., an associate scientist in the Division of Neuroscience at ONPRC. "By developing a special test of neuronal function, we were able to witness the breakdown in this group of specialized cells.

Eventually the cells behaved as if there was no leptin present, even though levels were 40-times higher than in normal animals. We were also able to witness the eventual repair of this important system which occurs as the mice lost weight when returned to a low fat diet."

More specifically, the scientists determined that leptin resistance prevented the arcuate nucleus from taking part in an important signaling functio
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