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Synthetic DNA Makes Better Hydrogels for Drug Delivery

Using synthetic DNA formed into crosses, Y's and T's, Cornell researchers have created biocompatible, biodegradable//, inexpensive hydrogels that can be easily formed into any desired shape for biomedical applications.

Hydrogels are liquid or semisolid materials composed of long-chain molecules cross-linked to one another to create many small empty spaces that can absorb water or other liquids like a sponge. If the spaces are filled with a drug, the hydrogel can dispense the drug gradually as the structure biodegrades. Widespread research also is under way on using hydrogels as scaffolds for tissue engineering and tissue repair, where the spaces in the gel might be filled with stem cells, tissue-growth factors or a combination of both.

Hydrogels for these purposes are usually made from organic or inorganic polymers (molecules that form long chains), such as alginate from seaweed. Some have been made from proteins but none entirely from ordinary DNA. So far, all these processes have used organic solvents or acids or involve high temperatures, making conditions too harsh for a drug or living cells, so the materials to be encapsulated must be loaded in afterward.

The new process, developed in the laboratory of Dan Luo, Cornell assistant professor of biological and environmental engineering, uses no high temperatures or harsh chemicals, so the material to be encapsulated in the gel can be introduced before the gel is formed. Because the gel is made of only synthetic DNA, no immune response should be triggered, the researchers said, so the material encapsulated can include proteins and even live mammalian cells.

The research was published Sept. 24 in the online version of Nature Materials and will appear in a forthcoming print issue of the journal.

A DNA molecule is a long chain in a sequence that is unique to each chain. Conveniently, two chains with complementary sequences can lock onto one another like two hal
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