Navigation Links
Smoking Hampers Healing of the Ligament

Researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have just given people another reason to kick the butt by revealing that smoking interferes with ligament healing.

The researchers conducted a study on a mouse model and found that cigarette smoking impairs the recruitment of cells to the injury site and delays healing following ligament repair surgery.

The researchers looked at the mouse medial collateral ligament (MCL), a ligament that supports the knee joint in both mice and people.

MCL injuries are the most common, and are also the most common injuries seen in competitive and recreational sports.

Previous studies have demonstrated that the mouse provides a good paradigm for what happens in injured human knees.

"This is a good model for knee ligament injury, but it could be a model for ligament injuries anywhere in the body. It's likely the biology is transferable to other knee ligaments, elbow ligaments, shoulder ligaments, you name it," says co-investigator Linda J. Sandell, Ph.D., professor of orthopaedic surgery.

To look at the effects of smoking, Sandell, Wright and their colleagues used a system developed at the School of Medicine in which mice are placed inside smoking chambers six days per week.

The mice were exposed to enough passive fumes to make up for two cigarettes daily, the equivalent of a person smoking about four packs per day.

They were placed in the smoking chambers for two months prior to MCL surgery and then again after surgery to mimic the behaviour of humans who continue to smoke following an injury.

Soft tissue healing that occurs following ligament injuries occurs in stages. There is an immediate pooling of blood near the injury, the sort of hemorrhaging that will cause swelling right away. This initial response is followed by several days of inflammation, in which cells called macrophages fl ock to the injury site and secrete substances called cytokines and chemokines. Those, in turn, recruit more cells to assist in healing. That process of cellular proliferation and synthesis lasts for several days to several weeks. The final stage of healing involves remodeling of the tissue and can continue for months and even years.

An earlier study found an increase in cell density and in gene activity to produce type I collagen in the first week following MCL injury, so in this study the researchers paid close attention to cell density, biomechanical function and gene expression during the first week after MCL repair. In mice exposed to cigarette smoke, cell density was lower and type I collagen gene expression was reduced.

"Our studies also have shown a decreased macrophage response that may help explain why we see this delayed or decreased healing response," Wright says.

Sandell and Wright say their findings point to yet another reason smokers would do well to quit.

"Many patients don't want to hear it, but these results suggest that smoking affects anyone who needs ligament-repair surgery. I counsel surgery patients to at least try to decrease smoking because, if nothing else, that will improve the healing of their surgical incisions. Quitting smoking is good health management regardless, but in patients having this kind of surgery, there are extra advantages." Wright says.

The findings of the study are reported in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research.


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. New hope on the Horizon for People Wishing to Quit Smoking
2. Cancers of Colon & Rectum linked to Cigarette Smoking
3. Smoking a greater risk than HIV? Yes say health experts!!!!
4. Kick Smoking with Nicotine Drink
5. Smoking spreads Cancer
6. Prescription Drug - Helps People Stop Smoking
7. Quit Smoking
8. Smoking can depreciate intellegence
9. Smoking Delays Pregnancy
10. Smoking Linked To Low Infant Birth Weight
11. GlaxoSmithKline To Cultivate Non-Smoking Environment
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/23/2017)... ... June 23, 2017 , ... 21 Middle East and ... has selected 21 leaders from government, business and civil society in 11 countries across ... U.S. this fall, engaging in a transformative exchange of knowledge and ideas with the ...
(Date:6/23/2017)... Jupiter, FL (PRWEB) , ... June 23, 2017 , ... ... the award winning series, which is slated to air fourth quarter 2017. American Farmer ... Christian D.A. Hansen, a Danish pharmacist, founded Chr. Hansen in Denmark in 1874 ...
(Date:6/23/2017)... ... June 23, 2017 , ... All-Star Insurance, a family managed agency that ... eastern Texas, is announcing the launch of a new charity drive to benefit women ... the United States reveal that an estimated 252, 710 new cases of invasive or ...
(Date:6/22/2017)... ... June 22, 2017 , ... Plastic Surgery Associates is proud to report that ... Each year, research and information firm, Castle Connolly, releases their list of the most ... marks the 3rd time that Dr. Canales has been recognized by Castle ...
(Date:6/22/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Despite its pervasiveness, many physicians are unfamiliar with how best ... with clinical practice. Now, however, a timely review has been published in the ... etiology of NeuP and educating preclinical scientists on its diagnosis and choice of treatment. ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/14/2017)... 14, 2017 The Bio Supply Management Alliance ... of Fremont and the Biomedical Manufacturing Network ... in California by providing a ... and fostering workforce development. The primary focus of this ... start-ups, as well as small and mid-sized biomedical companies. ...
(Date:6/12/2017)... SEATTLE , June 12, 2017 Kineta, Inc., ... today announced Kineta Vice President of R&D and ... at the Pandemic Preparedness for the Northwest and Beyond ... be held on June 14, 2017 from 8:30-10:30 AM PDT ... Dr. Bedard will be joined ...
(Date:6/9/2017)... 9, 2017 AirXpanders, Inc. (ASX: AXP) (AirXpanders ... design, manufacture, sale and distribution of the AeroForm® Tissue ... of its commercial roll-out in the United ... than one hundred (100) medical institutions and health systems, ... a needle-free alternative for women who choose reconstructive surgery ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: