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Second Alagille Syndrome Gene discovered: More information on kidney disease

Genetics researchers at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia have discovered a second gene that causes Alagille syndrome, a developmental disease with a genetic basis that affects many organs.//

This finding may have broader implications in the understanding of kidney disorders. The Children's Hospital team had earlier discovered the first gene associated with this syndrome.

The researchers found that mutations in the NOTCH 2 gene were linked to kidney abnormalities in patients and families. "While Alagille syndrome is relatively rare, organ diseases are not rare, and our findings suggest that genes on this biological pathway may have a broader role in kidney disorders," said study leader Nancy B. Spinner, Ph.D., a geneticist at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

The study appears in the July issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics.

Dr. Spinner led the Children's Hospital team that identified mutations in the JAG1 gene as a cause of Alagille syndrome in 1997. Like the NOTCH2 gene analyzed in the current study, JAG1 is part of a signaling pathway that governs important processes in early human development.

Alagille syndrome, estimated to occur in one in 20,000 individuals, is a complex disorder, primarily affecting the liver, heart, eyes, face and skeleton. Some patients with Alagille syndrome have very mild symptoms or isolated problems, while others may have severe, life-threatening heart or liver defects.

Both the JAG1 and the NOTCH2 genes participate in the Notch signaling pathway. JAG1 codes for the ligand Jagged1, a signaling protein that triggers receptors in the pathway. The NOTCH2 gene codes for Notch2, which is one of those receptors. The pathway as a whole is active during embryonic development, and transmits signals to cells to develop into specialized organs. Mutations in those genes are thought to disrupt normal development, by, for instance, causing the defective bile du
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