Navigation Links
Scientists breaking theory of cortex formation

Researchers from MIT and University of California are finding out a new theory on the formation of brain cortex through a rich array of signals which connect other brain regions forming a new processing network//.

The cerebral cortex is a sheet of around 10 billion neurons divided into distinctly separate areas that process particular aspects of sensation, movement and cognition. To what extent are these areas predetermined by genes or shaped by the environment? The protomap and protocortex theories developed before 1990 claimed, respectively, that the task-specific regions of the cortex are spawned by a zone of "originator" cells; or that long nerve fibers from the thalamus, a large ovoid mass that relays information to the cortex from other brain regions, are activated by external stimuli to impose identity on the homogeneous blob.

New evidence indicates that the development of cortical areas involves "a rich array of signals," an interwoven cascade of developmental events, some internal and some external, according to co-authors Mriganka Sur, Sherman Fairchild Professor of Neuroscience at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and the MIT Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, and John L. R. Rubenstein of UCSF.

"Recent evidence has altered researchers' understanding of how cortical areas form, connect with other brain regions, develop unique processing networks and adapt to changes in inputs," Sur said. "Understanding basic mechanisms of cortical development are central to understanding disorders of development."

Sur, chair of the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, is leading an ambitious, multifaceted approach to understanding the genetic, molecular and behavioral aspects of autism.

In the Science review article, "Patterning and Plasticity of the Cerebral Cortex," Sur and Rubenstein point out that transcription factors are key. A transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a sp ecific site where it regulates transcription, or the process of copying genetic material.

In the brain's early prenatal development, transcription factors control the birth and growth of new neurons, neurons' movement and connectivity within the brain, and which ones live and which are killed off.

Later, at a critical point in development, activity in the form of outside stimulation refines the brain's topography and networks to create the specific functions and areas of the postnatal mammalian brain.

Source: Eurekalert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Scientists plan human cloning clinic in the United States
2. Scientists found ancient Human Germ Killer
3. Scientists locate key hormone involved in appetite control
4. Scientists open the book of life
5. Scientists review SARS
6. Scientists crack dengue fever puzzle
7. Scientists push to lower hidden sodium in food
8. Indian Scientists Make Wide-Ranging Analysis And Annotation Of X Chromosome
9. Scientists have found effective brain regions for deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s
10. Scientists reveal the secrets of sarcasm
11. Scientists Unveil Mechanism Behind Resistance to Severe Malaria
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/4/2016)... , ... May 04, 2016 , ... ... master charity program created to assist the people of their local community. The ... nonprofit organizations and community leaders. Their hope is to bring awareness to important ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... , ... Dr. Elyson and Dr. Assili, dentist in Northridge , announce ... removal, a common dental procedure, is performed for many adolescents and young adults today. ... risks of complications. By providing wisdom tooth removal surgery at their office, Dr. Elyson ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... 04, 2016 , ... Francesca Loparco, Co-Founder of Queen City Dream Cars, an ... same-day LASIK procedure at Christenbury Eye Center. The entrepreneur struggled with her computer, ... the same day as her in-office consultation and eye exam. Francesca’s eyesight was restored ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... ... and compact tactical (6.7 inch) dual-light flashlights in models NSP-9842XL and NSR-9844XL ... (average retail starting at $59.95) uses 2 included CR-123 batteries to produce up ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... Warren L. Smith M.D. , There ... UTIs, have plagued people since the beginning of recorded medical history, and in ... every year. It's not just a matter of inconvenience; bladder infections cost us billions ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/3/2016)... May 3, 2016   BIOTRONIK , a ... announced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of ... provides heart failure patients with access to diagnostic ... have remote monitoring with daily automatic transmission and ... rate in response to physiological demands. ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... , May 3, 2016 ... pay $55 million to a woman who says its ... court awarded Gloria Ristesund $5 million in ...      (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160330/349511LOGO ) , ... accusations against the company. In February, the same court ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... LLC (Forté) is excited to announce the launch of its Mediceutical line of products, ... for a variety of clinical conditions. Founded in 2013, Forté spent more than two ... Logo -  http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160502/362547LOGO ... ... ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: