Navigation Links
Scientists Discover How HIV Escapes Cells

Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions have discovered that the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits a pre-existing transport system to leave one infected cell, and infect new ones.

Published in Plos Biology, the new findings counter the prevailing belief that HIV and other retroviruses can only leave and enter cells by virus-specific mechanisms.

It appears that cells make HIV and other retroviruses by a naturally occurring export mechanism, says Dr. Stephen Gould, Professor of Biological Chemistry at Johns Hopkins.

The researchers say that cells normally export certain membrane-bound molecules to the outside world by means of small sacs known as exosomes. They say that a study of human T-cells under a microscope helped them discover what is needed to qualify proteins for exosomal travel.

Surprisingly, all thats needed for a protein to get out of the cell in exosomes are the ability to clump together and attach to the cells membrane, says Gould, a researcher.

In one experiment, the researchers added chemicals to normal human cells that force nearby proteins together into a clump, which was enough to get them sent out of the cell in exosomes. When they added a tether to force naturally-clumping proteins inside the cell to the membrane, the proteins met a similar exosomal deportation fate.

The major HIV protein Gag has both of these properties that cells sense in selecting exosomal cargoes.

Upon removal of the tethers or clumping signals from Gag, it could no longer get out of the cell. However, when they were replaced with synthetic membrane anchors and clumping domains, Gag regained its ability to get out of cells in exosomes.

Gould believes that cells might have initially developed exosomes as a quality control mechanism to get rid of clumped proteins, which are generally broken and useless. However, just as retroviruses exploit other cell processes for their own ends, it now appears they rely on exosomes to get out of infected cells and infect fresh cells.

The researchers believe that drugs that interfere with exosome formation might be one way to inhibit HIV infections.

Viruses like HIV use pathways we barely recognize, much less understand. Our paper highlights the importance of studying their basic biochemistry and cell biology, which can yield a better understanding of normal human biology as well as identify new avenues in the fight against human disease, Gould says.


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Scientists plan human cloning clinic in the United States
2. Scientists found ancient Human Germ Killer
3. Scientists locate key hormone involved in appetite control
4. Scientists open the book of life
5. Scientists review SARS
6. Scientists crack dengue fever puzzle
7. Scientists push to lower hidden sodium in food
8. Indian Scientists Make Wide-Ranging Analysis And Annotation Of X Chromosome
9. Scientists have found effective brain regions for deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s
10. Scientists reveal the secrets of sarcasm
11. Scientists Unveil Mechanism Behind Resistance to Severe Malaria
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... PawPaws brand pet supplements owned ... developed to enhance the health of felines. The formula is all-natural and is made ... in the PawPaws Cat Kidney Support Supplement Soft Chews are Astragalus Root ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... Austin, TX (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... Fellow of the American College of Mohs Surgery and to Dr. Russell Peckham for ... popular and highly effective treatment for skin cancer. The selective fellowship in Mohs Micrographic ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... , ... June 25, 2016 , ... As a lifelong ... Cum Laude and his M.D from the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. ... to Los Angeles to complete his fellowship in hematology/oncology at the UCLA-Olive View-Cedars Sinai ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... A recent article published June ... with. The article goes on to state that individuals are now more comfortable seeking ... common operations such as calf and cheek reduction. The Los Angeles area medical group, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... The Pulmonary ... Dallas that it will receive two significant new grants to support its work ... marked its 25th anniversary by recognizing patients, medical professionals and scientists for their ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016  American Respiratory Labs (ARL), a ... now able to perform sophisticated lung assessments in patients, homes, thanks ... Inc. Patients are no longer limited to having ... PRO ® , ARL patients like Jeanne R. of ... the comfort of her own home. ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... According to a new market ... Needles, Safety Pen Needles), Needle Length (4mm, 5mm, 6mm, ... of Purchase (Retail, Non-Retail) - Trends & Global Forecasts ... market for the forecast period of 2016 to 2021. ... by 2021 from USD 1.65 Billion in 2016, growing ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Belgium , June 24, 2016 ... the appointment of Dr. Edward Futcher ... Non-Executive Director, effective June 23, 2016.Dr. Futcher was ... Nominations and Governance Committees.  As a non-executive member ... independent expertise and strategic counsel to VolitionRx in ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: