Navigation Links
River Blindness Becoming Drug Resistant

As Ghana commemorates 50 years of independence this year, the fight against river blindness there also marks its half century. The really bad news is that the parasite that causes the crippling disease endemic in Africa may be developing resistance to the one drug used to treat it.

River blindness is caused by a thin worm that's transmitted to humans by black flies. The worms can cause intense itching, elephantiasis of the genitals and blindness if they reach the eyes. Millions of persons are still infected with onchocerciasis (the cause of river blindness) in 30 countries in Africa. Eleven countries are located in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme Zone in West Africa (OCP) and the disease is still a major cause of blindness.

Out of some 120 million people world-wide who are at risk of onchocerciasis, 96% are in Africa. A total of 18 million people are infected with the disease of whom 99% are in Africa. Now ivermectin used to be a most effective way of tackling this disease. In the mid-1980's, it was introduced as probably the most broad-spectrum anti-parasite medication ever. It is effective against most common intestinal worms (except tapeworms), most mites, and some lice, though it is not effective against fleas, ticks, flies, or flukes.

It is effective against larval heartworms (the "microfilariae" that circulate in the blood) but not against adult heartworms (that live in the heart and pulmonary arteries). But when researchers tested 2,501 people in disease-endemic regions of Ghana from 2004 to 2005, they found 19.5 percent had the worms that cause river blindness. Ivermectin only acts to kill young worms, so any adult worms in patients would still be present, even after treatment.

In four of the 10 communities, people were shown carrying a higher number of immature worms - the opposite result expected from the drug - suggesting the parasite was developing immunity. ``This finding represents a wake-u p call that any parasite-control program that relies on a single antimicrobial agent is always at risk of derailment,'' wrote Dr. Peter J. Hotez, president of the Sabin Vaccine Institute, in an accompanying commentary in The Lancet. Hotez was not linked to the study.

Officials said there were currently there are 18 million cases in 36 countries worldwide, including in tropical regions of the Americas. Every year, public health officials give out more than 20 million doses of ivermectin, used to treat river blindness since 1987. Experts estimate the drug has prevented nearly 40,000 cases of blindness a year. To date, nearly $600 million has been spent trying to eliminate river blindness from the world.

``It's not surprising that we're seeing some drug resistance,'' Hotez said. ``You can't rely on a single tool without any backup.'' The emerging problem of resistance to this drug underlines the need to find new drugs and possibly even vaccines, he said.

Experts have acknowledged that relying exclusively on ivermectin was not the best strategy. ``It's been taken for granted for years that the river blindness problem has been solved because we have ivermectin,'' Prichard said. ``But the problem has not been solved. We need another drug.''


Related medicine news :

1. Western Australia Witnesses Rise In Ross River Virus Infection
2. Riverbanks Zoo’s Koala Has Cance
3. River Blindness Incidence Reduced With Effective Treatment
4. Mysterious Illness on Riverboat not Caused by Bacteria
5. Act Now To Cleanse Highly Polluted River Hindon, Says Study
6. Sewage Swamps River in Scotland
7. Australia Battles Oil Slick on Yarra River
8. Are Main Rivers in Himalayas Under Threat?
9. Ganges River Dolphins Continue to Die in India
10. Sewage Flows into Hudson River in a Torrent
11. ISRO Chief Concerned About River Pollution
Post Your Comments:

(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... Purdue University announced Tuesday ... Sciences Initiative aimed at enhancing Purdue’s life sciences research and graduate education. The ... campaign. , The investment will result in cohesive efforts across several colleges and ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... 13, 2015 , ... "My friend's son suffers from eczema, and he had ... an inventor from Platteville, Colo. "I came up with this kit as a way ... to prevent a child from rubbing or scratching his or her face. This protects ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... October 13, 2015 , ... ProText Kinetic Panel is a ... ProText Kinetic Panel, users can create energetic text animations in any layout without the ... Final Cut Pro X timeline and stylize the text. With intuitive on-screen controls, users ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... ... 2015 , ... Relay (, a technology company that connects ... contract that will provide its award-winning private messaging solution to Independence Blue Cross ... of its Relay program, IBX Wire™, which now has over 550,000 members using ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... Angeles, CA (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2015 ... ... published an in-depth review of Anik Singal's newly launched "Publish Academy" training ... a digital publishing business opened for enrollment today, and marketers around the Internet ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/13/2015)... YORK , Oct. 13, 2015 Pomerantz ... filed against Amicus Therapeutics, Inc. ("Amicus" or the "Company")(NASDAQ: ... filed in United States District Court, District of ... a class consisting of all persons or entities who ... 1, 2015 inclusive (the "Class Period"). This class action seeks ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... BOSTON , Oct. 13, 2015 ... lawsuits against GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) related to the pharmaceutical ... defects alleged to have been caused by their ... profile of this drug for pregnant women.   Due ... lawsuits against GSK, The United States Judicial Panel ...
(Date:10/13/2015)... Oct. 13, 2015 VIVA Physicians, a not-for-profit ... and intervention through education and research, is excited to ... 2015 . Sixteen trial results, featuring the latest in ... first time on Monday and Tuesday, November 2 and ... --> --> Since 2003, VIVA Physicians ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: