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Researchers Investigate Molecular Basis of Memory

Researchers from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's (EMBL) Mouse Biology Unit in Monterotondo, Italy, and the Universidad Pablo de Olavide in Sevilla,// Spain, now for the first time investigate the molecular basis of memory in living mice. The study, which appears in the current issue of Learning and Memory, identified a molecule that is crucially involved in learning and singled out the signaling pathway through which it affects memory.

Phone numbers, the way to work, granny's birthday - our brain with its finite number of nerve cells can store incredible amounts of information. At the bottom of memory lies a complex network of molecules. To understand how this network brings about one of the most remarkable capacities of our brain we need to identify its components and their interactions.

Our sense organs inform our brain about what happens around us and brain cells communicate this information between each other using electrical signals. These signals become stronger the more often a cell experiences the same stimulus allowing it to distinguish familiar information from news. In other words a cell remembers an event as an unusually strong and long-lasting signal. This phenomenon called long-term potentiation (LTP) is thought to underpin learning and memory and its molecular basis is being investigated intensively.

"It is difficult to study a dynamic process like memory in the test tube," says Liliana Minichiello, whose group carried out the study at EMBL's Mouse Biology Unit in collaboration with Agn?¨s Gruart at the Universidad Pablo de Olavide in Sevilla, Spain, who performed the behavior and in vivo recordings. "To assess if the molecular mechanisms that generate LTP also underpin memory formation you need to study a living animal while it is learning."

Minichiello and her team combined molecular, electrophysiological and behavioural methods in a sophisticated mouse model. This new approach allowed them for
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