Navigation Links
Research Reveal A New Angle On Neural Circuits.

Researchers from the Brandeis University in US are offering new insight into how the brain’s neural circuits are actually shaped by experience.//

Research from Brandeis University, which has been published online earlier in the in ‘Nature’, has thrown much needed insights into the probable shaping of the neural circuits by experience. The researchers in the article have provided new evidence towards the mechanisms that affect the ability of the visual cortex to plastically reorganize itself after subsequent periods of visual deprivation.

“Getting our brains to wire up properly requires experience during an early critical period of development, and understanding the mechanisms of this experience-dependent plasticity is critical for understanding human development, its disorders, and for designing strategies that promote optimal cognitive development during early childhood,” explained author and neuroscientist Gina Turrigiano.

Neuroscientists have long known that the brain needs proper sensory stimulation to develop correctly and that experience can induce plastical changes in the functional architecture of sensory cortices. Animals that grow up with one eye covered during a critical period of brain development lose some of their visual acuity and ability to respond to certain visual stimuli. In these experimental conditions, Turrigiano and colleagues explored the visual cortex circuit of young rats by recording electrical activity of neurons and their connections.

“We have found an important and novel mechanism involved in the loss of function of cortical circuits,” said co-author neurophysiologist Arianna Maffei. “While our results directly apply to the loss of visual function secondary to sensory deprivation, they very likely represent a more general strategy for cortical networks to respond to experience.”

The researchers showed that the lasting cortical shutdown induced by visual deprivation at early sta ges of development is the result of a massive increase of cortical inhibition. Specifically, the strength of inhibitory synaptic connections between two types of neurons in the layer receiving the input – the inhibitory fast-spiking basket cells and the excitatory star pyramidal neurons – increased 3-fold.

While it has been historically believed that regulation of excitatory synapses is most critical to the development of neuronal circuitry, and that loss of function is the result of a depression of excitation, this research demonstrates that inhibitory synapses play a critical role in proper network wiring and ultimately in preserving – or disrupting - neuronal function.

“Our data suggest a major revision of thinking about how experience works on our brains," noted Turrigiano. "Instead of targeting exclusively excitatory networks, a major locus of plasticity lies within the inhibitory networks. Our data show that inhibitory networks within the cortex are highly plastic, and that some pathological states arise through inappropriate activation of inhibitory plasticity.”

Sourc: EurekAlert.

Related medicine news :

1. Kidney Stones - Interesting New Research implicates bacteria as its cause
2. Researchers urge caution in using ear tube surgery
3. Paracetamol May Cause Live Damage Warns Consumer Education and Research Centre
4. Researchers Scale to assess the Severity of Epilepsy in Kids
5. Research of Ritalin
6. Researchers trick Alzheimers Enzyme
7. Researchers find new HIV hiding place
8. A Compilation of recent Diabetes Research articles
9. Research on causes for falling helps develop preventive strategies
10. New standards for Human Research Safety
11. Research on Celiac Disease in children
Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/25/2015)... ... ... Today, Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) learned that the number of ... time since 2011. In 2014, there were 9,967 fatalities involving an alcohol impaired driver, ... Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 32,675 people were killed in traffic crashes in 2014. Drunk ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... In honor ... Periwinkle Pioneers, individuals and groups responsible for advancing care for pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... nominated by the public, will receive special recognition throughout 2016 as part of ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... 25, 2015 , ... Privately owned Contract Development and Manufacturing ... its current state of the art research, development and manufacturing facility outside of ... manufacturing capacity as well as to support its clients’ growing research and development ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Many people know of ... weight gain, cold hands, and dry skin. But many people who find their cholesterol ... exercise regimen instead of their thyroid, especially if they don’t have any of the ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Since its launch in ... involving adult stem cell therapies to patients with chronic degenerative medical conditions. Now, ... a Registered Trademark (RTM). , Organizations are required to hold a registered trademark ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... 2015  Today AVACEN Medical announced the issue of United States patent ... Adjustment ". This patent shields the company,s AVACEN 100 dry heat therapy medical device and specific ... Photo - ... ... ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... YORK , November 25, 2015 ... market of self-monitoring blood glucose devices was valued at ... grow with a CAGR of 5.7% during 2015 - ... geriatric population and increasing prevalence of diabetes. In addition, ... diabetes care is also contributing to the growth of ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... Pennsylvania , November 25, 2015 - ... Continuing Medical Education (CME) --> ... Continuing Medical Education (CME) --> ... Care Continuing Medical Education (CME) ... medical information products and services, will feature latest diagnostic imaging textbooks ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: