Navigation Links
Regulatory T-cells – Protector or Cause of Diseases

Immune system protects the body from infection causing agents. Regulatory T-cells, a part of the immune system, learn in early stages of life itself to recognize// the invaders and defend them. But, researchers have reported that these cells seem to protect certain bacteria, viruses and tumors.

Researchers at the Medical college of Georgia, studied the T-cells in the thymus and their subsequent movement in the body, using a genetically manipulated mice and the technology enabling the detection of antigen receptors. These antigen receptors determine what the T-cells recognize.

They found regulatory T cells learn what to protect while in the thymus and that everything the cells learn may not be good, according to research in the August issue of Immunity.

It is widely believed that regulatory T cells only recognize endogenous body tissue so they can stop T cells that are predisposed to attacking it, says Dr. Leszek Ignatowicz, MCG immunologist and the study’s corresponding author.

By examining receptors on all types of T cells before and after they leave the thymus, researchers found regulatory T cells are very diverse and able to recognize endogenous tissue and invaders, Dr. Ignatowicz says.

Unfortunately, the cells also may not learn to recognize all endogenous tissue which, along with environmental and other factors, can lead to autoimmune disease.

T cell schooling in the thymus peaks in the first six weeks of life in the mouse, which roughly translates to the first 15 years of human life. Those early lessons seem to last a lifetime and the few regulatory cells that develop later will be like the early cells, says Dr. Rafal Pacholczyk, MCG immunologist and lead author.

The findings mean, essentially from the beginning, some people may have regulatory T cells less skilled at keeping the immune system from attacking their bodies and/or too skilled at protecting invaders.

I t also means one day physicians might steer early education of regulatory T cells in the thymus as a way to vaccinate children against diseases such as lupus, arthritis and type 1diabetes. Or, they might add regulatory T cells to improve the mix in people who already have some bad police.

“We need some of the regulatory cells more than others,” says Dr. Ignatowicz. “We probably need more of the ones that recognize autoantigens on the pancreas and we need the ones that recognize tumors to be less frequent.”

The fact that most regulatory T cells in the body come directly from the thymus, not from other circulating T cells, also was previously unknown, Dr. Pacholczyk says. “Where they come from is the main question we wanted to answer,” says Dr. Ignatowicz.

It has been thought that some T cells circulating in the body might make the transformation, possibly because of what they are exposed to in the body. In fact T cells most aggressive at attacking endogenous tissue likely would be among those converting to protective regulatory cells, Dr. Ignatowicz says. “We did not find that does not happen, but it’s not the major mechanism for generating regulatory cells in the body,” Dr. Pacholczyk says.

All T cells are made in the bone marrow then move to the thymus as progenitor cells where they differentiate, upregulating surface receptors, which are molecules that detect different antigens. It’s a brutal process – 95 percent of the cells die in the thymus primarily because they recognize body tissue – that winds down after puberty.

All T cells wear their receptors for life, like signature hats. “We decided to compare receptors on the regulatory cells in the periphery with those in the thymus,” says Dr. Pacholczyk. By analyzing receptors on individual cells, they were able to follow the cells after they left the thymus and see if they changed.

Another key question was how regulatory T cells, which make u p about 5 percent of the total T cell population, can control millions of roaming T cells. They found it was a simple matter of numbers: by wearing many hats, or antigen receptors, regulatory T cells can keep their eyes on a lot of different non-regulatory cells.

“The next question we will ask, which is a hot topic right now, is what antigens trigger receptors on regulatory T cells?” says Dr. Pacholczyk. “What do they recognize? We know now they are coming from the thymus but how they are being generated is still a question. We want to look into the nature of antigens those receptors recognize which will allow us to predict more how they are being developed in the tymus.”


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Tumor Suppressor p53s Contradictory Regulatory System
2. Human Complexity Can Be Attributed To Regulatory Sequence
3. The Lancet Calls For Review Of Regulatory Process Of Drug Trials
4. Medtronic’s Insulin Pump Receives Regulatory Approva
5. GMC Wrestles For Regulatory Powers
6. Regulatory Mechanism for Tumor Suppressor Protein Identified
7. Structure of Iron Regulatory Protein-RNA Complex Solved
8. Ramadoss Vows to Set Up Food Regulatory Body in India
9. Master Regulatory Gene of Epithelial Stem Cells Identified
10. T-cells Developed from Human Embryonic Stem Cells
11. Is Diabetes the Leading Cause of Kidney Failure in India
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/12/2016)... Vail, Colorado (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 , ... ... 164 ASC Industry Physician Leaders to Know in 2016 . The list consists of ... leaders nominated physicians to establish this list. , An Ambulatory Surgery Center, also ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... CA (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 , ... Donor ... in northern California and Nevada, announced a partnership with San Ramon Regional Medical Center. ... to the hospital’s facilities as a way to accommodate a more certain time frame ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... ... surrounding communities by continuing it’s commitment to act as Agents of Change in ... works closely with area homeless families to fulfill immediate needs and help them ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... DC (PRWEB) , ... February 12, 2016 , ... ... “Managing High-Cost Drug Categories: Strategies for Health Plans and PBMs,” an upcoming Feb. ... to maintain affordability and access in big-dollar therapeutic categories, such as the $1,000-per-pill ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... , ... A lot has been reported about the fitness routines of United ... and wellness resources most Americans could ever dream of having at their disposal. However, ... frenetic as the U.S. President. , In honor of President’s Day on Feb. ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/11/2016)... 2016 Stem cells are primitive cells found ... and the capacity to differentiate into mature cell types ... the first mouse embryonic stem cells were derived from ... that the first culturing of embryonic stem cells from ... produced until 2006 As a result of these discoveries, ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... 11, 2016  Kindred Biosciences, Inc. (NASDAQ: KIN ... the lives of pets, today announced the submission to ... Animal Drug Application (NADA) for Zimeta™ (dipyrone injection, KIND-012).  ... of Zimeta for the control of pyrexia (fever) in ... --> --> The Chemistry, Manufacturing, ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... , Feb. 11, 2016   Health 2.0 ... of new health technologies, announced today " 10 Year ... in health tech over the past ten years.   ... nearly a decade, Health 2.0 has served as the ... and connected with thousands of technologies, companies, innovators, and ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: