Navigation Links
Protein Splicing Upsets the DNA Colinearity Paradigm

Understanding medical research problems often relies on the direct, linear relationship between the sequence of a protein and the DNA encoding that protein//. In fact, colinearity of DNA and protein sequences is thought to be a fundamental feature of the universal genetic code. However, a paper published today in Science by a team from the Brussels Branch of the global Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) and the Seattle-based Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC), shows that a protein can be rearranged so that it is no longer colinear with its encoding DNA.

Genes have stretches of (protein) coding DNA sequences interspersed with stretches of non-coding DNA sequences. The first step in making the protein is the faithful transcription of the entire gene’s sequence into an RNA sequence. The RNA is then ‘spliced’ such that the non-coding sequences are removed and the coding sequences are assembled in a linear fashion to form the template for translation from RNA to protein.

“Until now it was thought that colinearity of DNA and protein sequences was only interrupted by RNA splicing,” says LICR's Dr. Benoit Van den Eynde, the study's senior author. "This new study shows that protein splicing also occurs, and may even result in protein fragments, or peptides, being spliced together in the order opposite to that which occurs in the parental protein.” According to Dr. Van den Eynde, this novel phenomenon occurs during the physiological function of ‘antigen processing,’ which produces antigenic peptides; the ‘red flags’ that mark cells for destruction by the immune system.

The immune system attacks ‘foreign’ cells - be they tumor cells, virally infected, or donated by another person - when T lymphocytes recognize antigenic peptides displayed on the cell surface. The antigens are created by ‘proteasomes,’ components of the cell machinery that cut foreign proteins into peptides that are then displayed on the cell surface for r ecognition and destruction by CD8+ T lymphocytes. However, the Belgium/USA team has found that proteasomes can also splice the peptide fragments together in a reverse order to that encoded by the protein’s DNA sequence template. This takes the possible number of antigens from any one protein into potentially thousands of sequence configurations.

The sequence of the first human cancer-specific antigen, which was identified at the LICR Brussels Branch, has allowed the development of antigen-specific cancer vaccines that are in clinical trials around the world. This study describes a mechanism that significantly extends the number of antigenic peptides that can be produced from a single protein, and therefore widens the applicability of peptide vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases.

The Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) is the largest international not-for-profit institute dedicated to understanding and controlling cancer. With nine Research Branches and one Centre for Clinical Sciences in seven countries, the scientific network that is LICR quite literally spans the globe. LICR has developed an impressive portfolio of reagents, knowledge, expertise, and intellectual property, and has also assembled the personnel, facilities, and practices necessary to patent, clinically evaluate, license, and thus translate, the most promising aspects of its own laboratory research into cancer therapies.



Source-Nwswise
SRM
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Lean Protein Could Be Key to Obesity Drugs
2. Evidence Links Protein Damage to Neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinsons and Alzheimers
3. Unravelling the secrets of ‘Huntingtin’ Protein - towards the treatment of ‘Huntingtons’ Disase
4. Unravelling the secrets of ‘Huntingtin’ Protein - towards the treatment of Huntingtins’ Disese
5. Protein in urine foresees heart disease
6. Levels Of Blood Proteins May Help Heart Disease Care
7. Protein signals need for heart surgery
8. Protein and fat improve memory
9. Clotting Protein plays a role in nerve repair
10. High Levels of Protein Linked to Brain Shrinkage
11. Protein can change worn muscle fibres
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... ... strategic partnership with Connance, a healthcare industry leader providing predictive analytics to ... technology combine to provide health systems, hospitals and ambulatory surgical centers with ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... Battle Creek, Michigan (PRWEB) , ... June 26, 2016 , ... ... abuse, joined as sponsor of the 2016 Cereal Festival and World’s Longest Breakfast Table ... held in honor of the city’s history as home to some of the world’s ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... Many ... been diagnosed with endometriosis. These women need a treatment plan to not only ... approach that can help for preservation of fertility and ultimately achieving a pregnancy. ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... "With 30 hand-drawn hand gesture animations, ... Christina Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , ProHand Cartoon’s package transforms ... Final Cut Pro X . Simply select a ProHand generator and drag it above ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... On Friday, June 10, Van Mitchell, Secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and ... their exemplary accomplishments in worksite health promotion. , The Wellness at Work Awards took ... the BWI Marriott in Linthicum Heights. iHire was one of 42 businesses to receive ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... LONDON , June 23, 2016 ... environments  Oticon , industry leaders in ... the launch of Oticon Opn ™, the world,s ... world of possibilities for IoT devices.      ... Opn, Oticon introduces a number of ,world firsts,: ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 The vast majority of dialysis patients ... Treatments are usually 3 times a week, with treatment ... travel time, equipment preparation and wait time.  This regimen ... for patients who are elderly and frail.  Many elderly ... rehabilitation centers for some duration of time. ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016  Experian Health, the healthcare ... the patient payment and care experience, today ... products and services that will enhance the ... offerings. These award-winning solutions will enable healthcare ... compliant in an ever-changing environment and redefine ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: