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Protective Intestinal Antibiotic Protein Discovered

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered a protein produced in the intestinal lining, which attacks microbial invaders and protects the// intestine. This discovery will certainly assist scientists in enabling patient’s suffering inflammatory bowel disease, with novel medications. This research will also step up the understanding of probiotics, which will assist in strengthening the immune system.

Scientists have known for decades that microbial cells in the human gut outnumber the body's own cells by about 10 to 1. Humans offer a safe haven to these microbes because they help us to break down food that we can't digest by ourselves. But it hasn't been clear how we keep these microscopic gut dwellers from invading our tissues and causing infections.

To help answer this question, Dr. Hooper's research team used mice raised inside sterile plastic bubbles. Because they are never in contact with the outer, microbe-filled world, these mice do not have the bacteria that normally colonize the gut. By exposing these "germ-free" mice to different types of gut bacteria, the researchers were able to observe how the epithelial cells lining the intestine react to microbial invaders."We found that when the gut lining comes into contact with bacteria, it produces a protein that binds to sugars that are part of the bacterial outer surfaces," Dr. Hooper said. "Once bound, these proteins quickly destroy their bacterial targets. They're killer proteins with a sweet tooth."

The protein, called RegIII gamma in mice and HIP/PAP in humans, belongs to a protein class called lectins, which bind to sugar molecules. These particular lectins' seek-and-destroy mission may help to create an "electric fence" that shields the intestinal surface from invading bacteria, Dr. Hooper said.

The findings of this study may offer researchers new clues about the causes of inflammatory bowel disease. Most healthy people have a friendly re
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