Navigation Links
Nitric Oxide Levels In Brain Indicate Sleep

Research by investigators from Children's Hospital Boston and the University of Helsinki (Helsinki, Finland), shows that people who must stay awake// all night may be able to put off sleeping if they take care to prevent nitric oxide levels building up in the brain. Previous research had found that nitric oxide production in basal forebrain is needed to produce sleep. Two new papers on the issue are published in the August 18 issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry and the September 5 issue of the European Journal of Neuroscience.

"This understanding of sleep physiology should provide a completely new basis for the development of drugs to prevent excessive sleepiness or to promote sleep," says study co-author Paul Rosenberg, MD, PhD, a researcher in the Neurobiology Program at Children's Hospital Boston, and a physician in the Center for Pediatric Sleep Disorders at Children's and in the Sleep Disorders Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

In 1997, senior investigator Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen MD, PhD, now at the University of Helsinki, first showed that when cats are awake for prolonged periods, a compound called adenosine accumulates in their brains, ultimately producing sleep. Once asleep, adenosine levels gradually decline. Rosenberg had been studying how the brain regulates the accumulation of adenosine in the brain for over 10 years, and, in 2000, he and his colleagues demonstrated in brain cells from rats that adenosine's release is stimulated by nitric oxide. The two teams decided to collaborate.

Studying mildly sleep-deprived rats – kept awake for an extra three hours – they found that nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain, but not in other parts of the brain, increased, by 50 to 150 percent. When they injected compounds that inhibit nitric oxide production into this region of the brain, adenosine levels did not increase and sleep was completely abolished (one type of inhibitor abolished dreaming, or REM, sleep, and the other non-REM sleep). The results were identical when the researchers injected a compound that scavenges nitric oxide – mops it up and renders it inactive.

In contrast, when the basal forebrain was infused with a nitric oxide "donor" – an agent that boosts nitric oxide levels – during a normal sleep-wake cycle, adenosine levels increased and the rats fell into a sleep much like the "recovery" sleep that occurs after prolonged wakefulness. Blocking adenosine receptors with caffeine prevented this nitric-oxide-induced slumber.

Rosenberg sees the most pharmaceutical promise in developing drugs that prolong wakefulness by curbing production of nitric oxide or scavenging the gas once it's produced. The opposite – a sleeping pill made from nitric oxide donors -- would be much harder, he says, since these compounds would likely break down before ever reaching the brain. However, one of the ways nitric oxide promotes sleep is by stimulating production of a signaling molecule called cyclic GMP, and it may be possible to achieve the same effect by using drugs that block cyclic GMP's breakdown, Rosenberg says.

One surprise in the research was that the main message telling the brain to go to sleep probably does not come from neurons, but from neighboring glial cells, which appear to produce the greatest amounts of nitric oxide. Until recently, glial cells have been assumed to play only a supportive role in the brain. Rosenberg speculates that the molecules that turn on nitric oxide production in glial cells (as yet undiscovered) might provide additional targets for drug development.

Source-EurekalertRAS
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Nitric oxide involved in high blood pressure
2. Benefits of Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Premature Infants
3. Nitric Oxide Could Benefit Premature Babies
4. Early Nitric Oxide Treatment Can Help Low Birth Weight Preemies
5. Nitrous Oxide for Kids
6. Benefits of Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Premature Infants
7. Nitric Oxide Could Benefit Premature Babies
8. Early Nitric Oxide Treatment Can Help Low Birth Weight Preemies
9. Levels Of Blood Proteins May Help Heart Disease Care
10. Elevated Ozone Levels Hurt Sperm Count
11. Elevating Manganese Levels hold back HIV
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/26/2017)... ... , ... IndustryArchive.Org . is announcing a new way for B2B Sellers ... only pay for B.A.N.T. quality sales leads based on the Sellers decision to purchase ... reality that B2B buyers are controlling the sales process via the Internet and that ...
(Date:2/26/2017)... ... ... ODH, Inc.™ announced today it will exhibit and speak at the 10th ... Arlington, VA. ODH’s director of medical strategy, Candace Saldarini, M.D., will present on how ... management. , ODH will also have an exhibit booth where attendees may speak to ...
(Date:2/26/2017)... ... February 26, 2017 , ... Occupational pesticide ... with a specific LRRK2 mutation, according to a study released today at the ... evidence of a link between pesticides and incidence of sporadic PD through occupational ...
(Date:2/24/2017)... ... February 24, 2017 , ... HealthPostures, ... Go. Core benefits and advantages built into the home office sit stand solution ... and feel. Ability to gain the benefits embedded in the TaskMate Go are ...
(Date:2/24/2017)... ... February 24, 2017 , ... Only two months after the official release ... show in Cannes (France), XO Private has initiated a second print-run of its lavish ... almost a metre across when open, weighs in at more than six kilos, retails ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/24/2017)... DUBLIN , Feb. 24, 2017 Research ... Health Market Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025" ... ... at a CAGR of around 23.8% over the next decade to ... analyzes the market estimates and forecasts for all the given segments ...
(Date:2/24/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... to 2025" report to their offering. ... The Global Empty Capsules Market is poised to grow ... approximately $2.9 billion by 2025. This industry report analyzes ... as well as regional levels presented in the research scope. The study ...
(Date:2/24/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Dry ... offering. ... Dry eye Drugs Price Analysis and Strategies - 2016, provides drug pricing ... answers the following questions: What are the ... they positioned in the Global Dry eye market? What ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: