Navigation Links
Nitric Oxide Levels In Brain Indicate Sleep

Research by investigators from Children's Hospital Boston and the University of Helsinki (Helsinki, Finland), shows that people who must stay awake// all night may be able to put off sleeping if they take care to prevent nitric oxide levels building up in the brain. Previous research had found that nitric oxide production in basal forebrain is needed to produce sleep. Two new papers on the issue are published in the August 18 issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry and the September 5 issue of the European Journal of Neuroscience.

"This understanding of sleep physiology should provide a completely new basis for the development of drugs to prevent excessive sleepiness or to promote sleep," says study co-author Paul Rosenberg, MD, PhD, a researcher in the Neurobiology Program at Children's Hospital Boston, and a physician in the Center for Pediatric Sleep Disorders at Children's and in the Sleep Disorders Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

In 1997, senior investigator Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen MD, PhD, now at the University of Helsinki, first showed that when cats are awake for prolonged periods, a compound called adenosine accumulates in their brains, ultimately producing sleep. Once asleep, adenosine levels gradually decline. Rosenberg had been studying how the brain regulates the accumulation of adenosine in the brain for over 10 years, and, in 2000, he and his colleagues demonstrated in brain cells from rats that adenosine's release is stimulated by nitric oxide. The two teams decided to collaborate.

Studying mildly sleep-deprived rats – kept awake for an extra three hours – they found that nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain, but not in other parts of the brain, increased, by 50 to 150 percent. When they injected compounds that inhibit nitric oxide production into this region of the brain, adenosine levels did not increase and sleep was completely abolished (one type of inhibitor abolished dreaming, or REM, sleep, and the other non-REM sleep). The results were identical when the researchers injected a compound that scavenges nitric oxide – mops it up and renders it inactive.

In contrast, when the basal forebrain was infused with a nitric oxide "donor" – an agent that boosts nitric oxide levels – during a normal sleep-wake cycle, adenosine levels increased and the rats fell into a sleep much like the "recovery" sleep that occurs after prolonged wakefulness. Blocking adenosine receptors with caffeine prevented this nitric-oxide-induced slumber.

Rosenberg sees the most pharmaceutical promise in developing drugs that prolong wakefulness by curbing production of nitric oxide or scavenging the gas once it's produced. The opposite – a sleeping pill made from nitric oxide donors -- would be much harder, he says, since these compounds would likely break down before ever reaching the brain. However, one of the ways nitric oxide promotes sleep is by stimulating production of a signaling molecule called cyclic GMP, and it may be possible to achieve the same effect by using drugs that block cyclic GMP's breakdown, Rosenberg says.

One surprise in the research was that the main message telling the brain to go to sleep probably does not come from neurons, but from neighboring glial cells, which appear to produce the greatest amounts of nitric oxide. Until recently, glial cells have been assumed to play only a supportive role in the brain. Rosenberg speculates that the molecules that turn on nitric oxide production in glial cells (as yet undiscovered) might provide additional targets for drug development.


Related medicine news :

1. Nitric oxide involved in high blood pressure
2. Benefits of Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Premature Infants
3. Nitric Oxide Could Benefit Premature Babies
4. Early Nitric Oxide Treatment Can Help Low Birth Weight Preemies
5. Nitrous Oxide for Kids
6. Benefits of Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Premature Infants
7. Nitric Oxide Could Benefit Premature Babies
8. Early Nitric Oxide Treatment Can Help Low Birth Weight Preemies
9. Levels Of Blood Proteins May Help Heart Disease Care
10. Elevated Ozone Levels Hurt Sperm Count
11. Elevating Manganese Levels hold back HIV
Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... It takes only three to five ... is critical that the first impression be positive and reflects business values. If a ... buy anything or want to return. They will also share their thoughts about a ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... PLAINSBORO, N.J. (PRWEB) , ... November 24, 2015 ... ... experts will gather to share their knowledge and experiences at a live taping ... during the Ruesch Center for the Cure of Gastrointestinal Cancers 2015 Symposium at ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... 24, 2015 , ... Aided by seed funding from the Ron Foley Foundation, ... yield insights into how to detect and treat pancreatic cancer (PC). , WCHN ... non-coding RNA molecules (ncRNA), genetic material that is present in the blood of patients ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... Sir Grout of Baltimore ... TrustDale certification. The award recognizes good companies for excellence in service and a ... grout, and hard surface restoration company earned this recognition after a thorough review ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... , ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... of patented products, announces Innovative Blending, a household invention that revolutionizes the vending ... Juice & Smoothie Bars market is worth $2 billion," says Scott Cooper, CEO ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... YORK , Nov. 24, 2015 iRhythm Technologies, ... advancing cardiac care, today announced that it will participate in the ... Hotel in New York, NY . ... present on Tuesday December 1, 2015 at 8:50am ET. ... . --> . ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... 24, 2015 --> ... MTTP Inhibitors, ApoB Inhibitors and PPAR Agonists ... grow at the fastest rates? This visiongain ... trends, opportunities and prospects there. ,  ,Our 199-page report ... lucrative areas in the industry and the future market ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Inc., an industry leader in LCD screen protection and glare-elimination technology, is providing a vital solution ... patient monitoring or electronic documentation system. Photo - ... ... ... A study in 2013 by the National Institutes of ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: