Navigation Links
Nitric Oxide Levels In Brain Indicate Sleep

Research by investigators from Children's Hospital Boston and the University of Helsinki (Helsinki, Finland), shows that people who must stay awake// all night may be able to put off sleeping if they take care to prevent nitric oxide levels building up in the brain. Previous research had found that nitric oxide production in basal forebrain is needed to produce sleep. Two new papers on the issue are published in the August 18 issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry and the September 5 issue of the European Journal of Neuroscience.

"This understanding of sleep physiology should provide a completely new basis for the development of drugs to prevent excessive sleepiness or to promote sleep," says study co-author Paul Rosenberg, MD, PhD, a researcher in the Neurobiology Program at Children's Hospital Boston, and a physician in the Center for Pediatric Sleep Disorders at Children's and in the Sleep Disorders Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

In 1997, senior investigator Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen MD, PhD, now at the University of Helsinki, first showed that when cats are awake for prolonged periods, a compound called adenosine accumulates in their brains, ultimately producing sleep. Once asleep, adenosine levels gradually decline. Rosenberg had been studying how the brain regulates the accumulation of adenosine in the brain for over 10 years, and, in 2000, he and his colleagues demonstrated in brain cells from rats that adenosine's release is stimulated by nitric oxide. The two teams decided to collaborate.

Studying mildly sleep-deprived rats – kept awake for an extra three hours – they found that nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain, but not in other parts of the brain, increased, by 50 to 150 percent. When they injected compounds that inhibit nitric oxide production into this region of the brain, adenosine levels did not increase and sleep was completely abolished (one type of inhibitor abolished dreaming, or REM, sleep, and the other non-REM sleep). The results were identical when the researchers injected a compound that scavenges nitric oxide – mops it up and renders it inactive.

In contrast, when the basal forebrain was infused with a nitric oxide "donor" – an agent that boosts nitric oxide levels – during a normal sleep-wake cycle, adenosine levels increased and the rats fell into a sleep much like the "recovery" sleep that occurs after prolonged wakefulness. Blocking adenosine receptors with caffeine prevented this nitric-oxide-induced slumber.

Rosenberg sees the most pharmaceutical promise in developing drugs that prolong wakefulness by curbing production of nitric oxide or scavenging the gas once it's produced. The opposite – a sleeping pill made from nitric oxide donors -- would be much harder, he says, since these compounds would likely break down before ever reaching the brain. However, one of the ways nitric oxide promotes sleep is by stimulating production of a signaling molecule called cyclic GMP, and it may be possible to achieve the same effect by using drugs that block cyclic GMP's breakdown, Rosenberg says.

One surprise in the research was that the main message telling the brain to go to sleep probably does not come from neurons, but from neighboring glial cells, which appear to produce the greatest amounts of nitric oxide. Until recently, glial cells have been assumed to play only a supportive role in the brain. Rosenberg speculates that the molecules that turn on nitric oxide production in glial cells (as yet undiscovered) might provide additional targets for drug development.

Source-EurekalertRAS
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Nitric oxide involved in high blood pressure
2. Benefits of Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Premature Infants
3. Nitric Oxide Could Benefit Premature Babies
4. Early Nitric Oxide Treatment Can Help Low Birth Weight Preemies
5. Nitrous Oxide for Kids
6. Benefits of Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Premature Infants
7. Nitric Oxide Could Benefit Premature Babies
8. Early Nitric Oxide Treatment Can Help Low Birth Weight Preemies
9. Levels Of Blood Proteins May Help Heart Disease Care
10. Elevated Ozone Levels Hurt Sperm Count
11. Elevating Manganese Levels hold back HIV
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:1/20/2017)... ... January 20, 2017 , ... Bionic Sports Nutrition LLC, ... of life, announced it had a successful January ECRM Trade Show in Hilton Head, ... United States, which allows it to provide its products to all clients at reasonable ...
(Date:1/20/2017)... ... January 20, 2017 , ... "TransFlare 4K Mystique comes with 44 colorful mysterious ... X," said Christina Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , TransFlare 4K ... 4K Mystique lens flare and light leak transitions have a very high-dynamic range for ...
(Date:1/20/2017)... ... 20, 2017 , ... “I Forgive You”: a fine examination of how God handles sin, ... creation of published author, Stephen Miller, who, for over ten long years has been waiting ... Born in Trinidad and Tobago, he has been serving the Lord for over twenty years, ...
(Date:1/20/2017)... ... 2017 , ... “The Land of More and More”: a brilliant story ... and shares the simple and achievable answer. “The Land of More and More” is ... Missionary Church in Angola, Indiana where he works with the children’s ministry department. ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... ... January 19, 2017 , ... ... expansion and facility enhancement of their 503A compounding pharmacy located in Ocala, Florida. ... demand of physicians and patients throughout the United States for high-quality human ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:1/19/2017)... , Jan. 19, 2017 The Global Therapy ... and access to partnering deals and agreements entered into ... in partnering deals - Top deals by value - ... development, technology type The report provides understanding and ... by the world,s leading healthcare companies. The report ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... Report Details ... Alzheimer,s Disease Therapeutics and ... our new study reveals trends, R&D progress, and predicted ... the Alzheimer,s disease therapeutics and diagnostics market. Our new ... - How is the Alzheimer,s disease therapeutics and diagnostics ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... 2017  Stealth BioTherapeutics Inc. ( Stealth ), a ... today announced new additions to its senior leadership team: ... Officer, and Daniel Geffken as interim Chief ... Carr , Pharm.D. has been promoted to Chief Clinical ... welcome Doug and Daniel to our management team, as ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: