Navigation Links
Life Functions Governed by Circadian Rhythms-new Research

In a new study conducted by Colorado State University shows that circadian rhythms dominate all life function. The functions of all the genes in the mammals are according to this daily rhythm. It disproves the prior theory that only 10 to 15% of genes were affected by the natures clock. It was earlier believed that some special function of the genes was the basic property of the organism. But these conclusion are refuted by the new study.The new study emphasises oscillation as a basic property of all genes in the organism. Daily life functions and metabolism are dominated by the circadian rhythm, thus regulating behaviour pattern of living.

Knowing about oscillation properties of genes involved in metabolism is essential for understanding how genes interact with and regulate health and disease. Colorado State University researcher Andrey Ptitsyn's new analysis of data collected through several studies establishes a baseline oscillation in 98 to 99 percent of all genes through advanced computer algorithms. Most of these genes have never been previously reported as changing their expression level in a daily cycle. Some of these genes, considered "housekeeping," have been used as a stable reference platform in gene expression studies.

"Anyone who diets, for example, knows you shouldn't eat late, and now we are getting closer to understanding why exactly," said Ptitsyn, a researcher in the Bioinformatics Center at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. The center is located in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology. "We discovered that all genes have a significant change in pattern of activity -- or expression -- throughout the day. Every pathway of gene expression is affected by circadian rhythms, and the timing of the rhythms from each group of genes that are synchronized is important."

Ptitsyn also discovered alternative short and long copies of some genes oscillating in the opposite phase. These genes are essential components of leptin signaling system, responsible for the sensation of satiety after eating. The oscillating pattern varies in different organs and determines the effect of leptin on regulation of the energy balance. Better understanding gene oscillation may provide researchers with clues for developing ways to treat people who overeat because of impaired leptin signaling.

Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that cycle over a period of about 24 hours and regulate timing for most physiological functions and behaviors such as sleeping, eating and activity. As a checks-and-balances procedure, Ptitsyn analyzed the sets of data with several mathematical approaches to achieve

the same results. The research also shows that gene oscillation is significantly more organized when mammals are exposed to regular periods of day and night. Oscillation can become chaotic in states of consistent lighting or lack of lighting, but it never stops.

Comparing the complex system in which the genes function to an AC power grid, Ptitsyn made the discovery by plotting the expression of 20,000 genes on a scale of frequency, or intensity, over a two day period and sorting them by phase or timing of oscillation. Where previous studies have failed, the Colorado State study uses advanced algorithms that have the capacity to identify patterns in such a large number of genes.

Ptitsyn discovered that gene activity oscillates in a "finely orchestrated" system and gene expression can be impacted by daylight and darkness -- or a lack of both. For example, while gene expression oscillates in mice exposed to a constant state of dim light or darkness, the groups of genes that typically oscillate together -- such as genes responsible for the function of an organ or a specific tissue -- are chaotic under this state and don't function as a group. Lack of orchestration can be easily confused with the lack of oscillation. T his makes the rhythm much harder to detect.

"It's like a conductor walking away from an orchestra during a performance; each musician continues to play, gradually going out of key with the others," said Ptitsyn. That is one likely reason why researchers previously missed the impact of circadian rhythm on all genes.

Depending upon environmental factors, groups of genes can function in a synchronized manner, shifting in time against each other and working in what resembles a domino effect.

However, very few genes are found to be oscillating in the same phases in different tissues or organs. In fact, only about 5 percent of all genes fall into the same phase or timing of peaks and valleys. Synchronization with the activity of the other genes and genes in different organs is a very important and highly specific part of gene function.

In addition, genes can oscillate with different amplitude -- the swing between the highest and the lowest point. Genes are expressed at very different levels, but most of them have the same relative change throughout the day. However, some genes show significant change in the amplitude in different organs or in response to a changing environment.

"When we standardize genes onto a common scale that measures levels of expression, we could not find a single gene that did not oscillate," Ptitsyn said.


Related medicine news :

1. Regular Use Of Cocaine Can Impair Brain Functions
2. Heart Functions Being Redefined By Researchers
3. Anticancer Properties of Vitamin D Could Be Separated From Other Functions
4. A New study Throws Light On The Growth & Functions Of Insulin Producing Beta Cells
5. Triple Therapy Shows Better Improvement of Brain Functions
6. Loss of Functions Traced in Alzheimers disease
7. Ariel Sharon Moved out of ICU After Improvement in Kidney Functions
8. Lung Functions and Stroke
9. Dry Eye Syndrome Affects Visual Functions
10. Circadian Rhythm Could Determine Lung Function
11. Researchers Investigate Gene Linked With Circadian Liver Clock
Post Your Comments:

(Date:12/1/2015)... ... ... Hospital Tampa is the first health care provider in the region to offer the ... is a vagal blocking therapy, delivered via the Maestro® System, for the treatment of adult ... least 40 to 45 kg, or a BMI of at least 35 to 39.9 kg ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... , ... December 01, 2015 , ... Dr. Paul Vitenas, ... Cosmetic Surgery, has been named by MedEsthetics magazine as the Best Single Physician Practice ... best among the many elite aesthetic physicians honored by the industry publication. , ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... ... December 01, 2015 , ... ... Annual 2015 Golden Bridge Business Awards under the New Products and Services category ... web based sample management software that helps labs organize data and ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... ... 2015 , ... For many X-rays taken at hospitals, doctors’ ... by the radiologist. The marking utensils are so small, however, they are difficult ... way to alleviate this problem. , He developed the patent-pending MARK N SHOW ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... ... December 01, 2015 , ... ... has been awarded a fixed price per sprint agile development contract to support ... $34 million over five years, provides software engineering, infrastructure, as well as operations ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:12/1/2015)... VANCOUVER , Dec. 1, 2015  Following an ... (NASDAQ: OGXI ) announced today that its Phase ... interim futility analysis of the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. In ... identified by the DMC. Both the DMC and OncoGenex ... expected in the second half of 2016, depending on ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... , Dec. 1, 2015  CytoSorbents Corporation (NASDAQ: ... commercializing its CytoSorb® blood purification technology to reduce ... world, today announced that Dr. Phillip Chan ... to participate in the LD Micro Main Event ... Conference, both of which will be held in ...
(Date:12/1/2015)... Colo. , Dec. 1, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... ) today announced that its Chief Executive ... at the Oppenheimer Annual Healthcare Conference in ... participate in the conference through a webcast ... , --> ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: