nsight into the factors involved in shoulder injuries in "overhead" athletes, such as baseball and tennis players. Another reports that, with proper supervision, weightlifting and strength training are safe and improve performance in children and teens. However, questions remain about the safe "dose-response range"—that is, what training intensity produces good results without undue risk of injury.
A comprehensive review finds good evidence on the risk factors for injuries in some sports, such as soccer, football, and basketball, but less so for other sports. Another article points out the high incidence and severity of injuries in certain sports: notably including ice hockey and rugby in boys, basketball and gymnastics in girls, and soccer in both sexes. The authors emphasize the need for further studies of incidence and risk factors to help develop effective strategies to prevent injuries.
One study analyzes various approaches to reducing the risk of sport-related injuries, including personal countermeasures, behavioral interventions, and environmental modifications. The authors propose a "responsibility hierarchy" for injury prevention, with government and sport organizations taking the lead role, supported by coaches, teachers, and parents.
The final paper is a study of support versus pressure placed on young soccer players by parents and coaches. The results suggest that a "supportive, mastery-oriented" approach by coaches helps young athletes derive the greatest social benefit from sport participation. The benefits are fewer when athletes feel "pressure to excel" from coaches and parents.
The eight papers in the special issue "clearly illustrate that the pediatric athlete is at risk for injury, that the etiology and treatment of pediatric injuries differs from adult athletes, and that there are black holes within our knowledge of how to deal with these problems," the Editors conclude. However, "the benefits of spPage: 1 2 3 Related medicine news :1
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