Navigation Links
Instrument to reveal Information about Ozone Loss

MIPAS, an instrument onboard ESA’s Envisat, has helped scientists to know more about the Polar stratospheric clouds.The discovery of these clouds had become a major factor in understanding// ozone depletion.

"The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is unique in its possibilities to detect polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) since it is the first instrument with the ability to observe these clouds continuously over the polar regions especially during the polar night," Michael H?pfner of Germany’s Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH said.

Using data collected by MIPAS, a German-designed instrument that observes the atmosphere in middle infrared range, H?pfner and other scientists discovered a belt of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) PSCs developing in the polar night over Antarctica in 2003 about one month after the first PSCs, which were composed of water crystals, were detected.

There are two classifications of PSCs – Type I clouds contain hydrated droplets of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, while Type II clouds consist of relatively pure water ice crystals.

The presence of NAT was detected because of MIPAS’ ability to map the atmospheric concentrations of more than 20 trace gases, including ozone as well as the pollutants that attack it.

"This has been the first evidence for the existence of NAT PSCs on a large scale," H?pfner said. NAT particles, which contain three molecules of water and one molecule of nitric acid, enhance the potential for ozone destruction in polar regions.

The thinning of the ozone is caused by the presence of man-made pollutants in the atmosphere such as chlorine, originating from man-made pollutants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). During the southern hemisphere winter, temperatures drop to very low levels causing the chemicals in the stratosphere, which is in complete darkness during the winter, to freeze and form PSCs that contain chlorine.

Now banned under the Montreal Protocol, CFCs were once widely used in aerosol cans and refrigerators – and have not vanished from the air. CFCs themselves are inert, but ultraviolet radiation high in the atmosphere breaks them down into their constituent parts, which can be highly reactive with ozone.

As the polar spring arrives, sunlight returns and creates chemical reactions in PSCs responsible for converting benign forms of chlorine into highly ozone-reactive radicals that spur ozone depletion. A single molecule of chlorine has the potential to break down thousands of molecules of ozone.

NAT PSCs enhance the potential for chlorine activation and can also sediment and irreversibly remove nitrogen from the lower stratosphere, causing a process known as denitrification, which slows the return of chlorine to its inactive form and allows for ozone destruction to continue.

H?pfner and fellow scientists were able to explain the sudden NAT formation of PSCs in 2003 by temperature disturbances in waves over the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ellsworth Mountains, suggesting a more significant role for mountain waves in the formation of Antarctic’s PSCs than previously thought.

According to H?pfner, the presence of PSCs could intensify in the future due to a globally changing climate where the Earth’s surface gets warmer due to trapped greenhouse gases but the stratosphere gets colder, providing an environment in which the clouds can form. An increase in PSCs could counteract the recovery of the ozone layer.

Although scientific efforts have focused on determining PSC composition and their formation mechanisms, the process causing the ozone depletion is far from understood. In order to gain a better understanding of ozone depletion, scientists must continue obtaining data, which allows them to measure the key species involved in the process.


'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Musical Instruments Pleasing To The Ear But Rough On The Skin
2. Sterilization Of Dental Instruments Is Inadequate, Says Study
3. Contaminated Surgical Instruments Increase Risk Of Infections
4. A Hand-held Instrument to Scan Patients for Surgery Leftovers Before Close of Surgery
5. Religiosity May Be Instrumental In Preventing The Spread Of HIV-AIDS
6. CDC reveals relationship between prepregnant weight and heart defects in infants
7. Dental exam reveals stroke risk
8. Study reveals how stress can make you sick
9. Study reveals how stress can make you sick
10. Breast cancer ignorance revealed
11. Dog DNA reveals mans link with best friend
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/27/2016)... ... May 27, 2016 , ... Beleza Medspa has initiated ... regulations. This is the first time that Coolsculpting is being used for for ... six months to ensure they meet the prescribed body-fat standard, measured by the circumference-based ...
(Date:5/27/2016)... ... , ... With a team of certified experts, Validation Center ... its GMP accreditation, Validation Center is also a registered authority of the international ... , Validation Center is ISO17025 accredited and only offers its clients the latest ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... thousands of defective respirators, according to court documents and SEC filings. A ... and Becky Tyler v. American Optical Corporation, Case No. BC588866, Los Angeles County, ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... May 26, 2016 , ... On Memorial Day, Hope For Heroes ... in military battle for the country. The nonprofit Hope For Heroes partnered with ... that empower independence for disabled military veterans, as well as police, firemen, and EMS ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... , ... MadgeTech will be showcasing its line of data logging products ... the MadgeTech headquarters. With products sold in more than 100 countries around the world, ... , In 2012, NASA strategically set up 17 RHTemp101A MadgeTech data loggers ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/25/2016)... 25, 2016 Inivata, a ... of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) analysis to improve ... of Professor Clive Morris as Chief ... the clinical development programme, scientific collaborations, and through ... significant improvements in clinical outcomes for patients. ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... AMSTERDAM , May 24, 2016 ... aplicación médica para ayudar a los médicos a compartir ... los pacientes a escala mundial. Profesionales médicos de Europa, ... ya se han apuntado a la aplicación, que combina ... en un entorno totalmente seguro. Educación   ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... 2016  Diana Russell suffers from a form of ... inside out.  This disease has put her in a ... and grandchildren to leave her home.  Because of the ... haul the wheelchair.  So if there is a family ... is left to wait for the bus. ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: