Navigation Links
How Taste-buds Develop?

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have come closer to understanding how the sense of taste develops. They have pinpointed a molecular pathway// that regulates the development of taste buds.

Taste buds are the sensory organs that transmit chemical stimuli from food and other sources to nerve cells, which convey these signals to the taste centers in the brain. Taste buds sit in the small bumps in the surface and sides of the tongue called papillae.

Using genetically engineered mice, they discovered that a signaling pathway activated by small proteins called Wnts is required for initiating taste-bud formation. They have also determined that Wnt proteins are required for hooking up the wiring of taste signals to the brain.

Senior author Sarah E. Millar, PhD, Associate Professor in the Departments of Dermatology and Cell and Developmental Biology, Penn postdoctoral fellow Fei Liu, PhD, and colleagues report their findings in the most recent online issue of Nature Genetics. "The developmental biology of taste is underexplored," says Millar of her team's impetus for the study.

The researchers demonstrated that blocking the action of Wnt proteins in surface cells of the developing tongue prevents taste-bud formation, while stimulating Wnt activity causes the formation of excessive numbers of enlarged taste papillae that are able to attract taste-related nerve fibers. This study represents the first genetic analysis of taste-organ initiation in mammals. While these studies were performed in mice, the researchers believe that their findings will also hold true for understanding the basis of taste-bud development in humans.

The signaling pathway activated by Wnt proteins is critical to the development of many organ systems, and its inappropriate activation causes human diseases including colon cancer. In previous studies, Millar and colleagues have shown that this pathway is essential for ini tiating the formation of hair follicles and mammary glands in mice.

The sites of Wnt signaling are easily visualized in specially engineered transgenic mice, using an enzymatic assay. "We noticed in the tongue that there was this beautiful pattern of blue spots that correspond to the developing taste papillae," says Millar. "This connected the Wnt pathway to their development."

In the present study, the researchers found that in mice in which the actions of Wnt proteins were blocked, taste papilla buds completely failed to develop. Conversely, in mice in which Wnt signaling was over activated, their tongues were covered with many and large papillae and taste buds.

"Unlike most surface epithelial cells, taste buds have characteristics of neurons as well as skin. Like other types of epithelial cells they turn over and regenerate, but they also express chemoreceptors and make synapses with neurons," explains Millar. The group studied how developing taste buds become wired into the nervous system. In early tongue development, neurons enter the tongue epithelium and make synapses with taste bud cells. This study confirmed that taste buds produce signals that attract nerve fibers to them. When taste-bud development was prevented by blocking Wnt signaling, the nerve fibers did not enter the tongue epithelium.

"They don't know where to go on their own," she says. Millar also mentions that by now understanding the basis for the initiation of taste-papilla formation, the evolution and difference between species in the numbers and patterns of taste buds can be more fully explored. All animals that taste have taste buds, but there are differences, for example humans have more (around 200) taste papillae than mice, and they are arranged in a different pattern.

Future research directions will include determining whether Wnt signaling is also important for the periodic regeneration of taste buds from taste-bud stem cells that occ urs throughout life in adult animals. Taste-bud regeneration can be affected by chemotherapy, so understanding this process will have important implications for patient care.

Source-Eurekalert
PRI
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Telomerase Vital In Maintaining Ability of Stem Cell to Multiply
2. Controlled Gene Expressions Can Cure Many Diseases
3. Genetic Expressions Can Influence The Process Of Aging
4. Non-Coding RNA Vital For Gene Activation And Protein Expression
5. Protein Expression to Serve as Marker for Head and Neck Cancer
6. Innocent Expression of Compassion, Children Draw For HIV kids
7. New Diagnostic Tool Uncovered Gene Expression Patterns in Recessive Genetic Disorders
8. Facial Expressions are Inherited: Study
9. How Blood Flow Dictates Gene Expression
10. Accuracy of Gene Expression Test for Heart Transplant Patients Confirmed
11. Autistic Children can Interpret Mental States by Facial Expressions: Research
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/27/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 27, 2016 , ... "FCPX editors ... customizable inside of Final Cut Pro X," said Christina Austin - CEO of Pixel ... style. Final Cut Pro X users can now reveal the media of ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... ... industry today announced its strategic partnership with Connance, a healthcare industry leader ... two companies’ proven, proprietary technology combine to provide health systems, hospitals and ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... TopConsumerReviews.com recently awarded their ... Eyeglasses . , Millions of individuals in the United States and Canada wear eyeglasses. ... way to both correct vision and make a fashion statement. Even celebrities use glasses ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... On June 10-11, 2016, A Forever Recovery, a ... and World’s Longest Breakfast Table in Battle Creek, MI, where the rehabilitation facility is ... to some of the world’s leading providers of cereal and other breakfast foods. Its ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... , ... June 26, 2016 , ... PawPaws brand ... new product that was developed to enhance the health of felines. The formula is ... The two main herbs in the PawPaws Cat Kidney Support Supplement Soft ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Revolutionary technology includes multi-speaker listening to ... leaders in advanced audiology and hearing aid technology, has ... the world,s first internet connected hearing aid that opens ...      (Photo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160622/382240 ) , ... firsts,: , TwinLink™ - the first dual ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 The vast majority ... outpatient dialysis facility.  Treatments are usually 3 times a ... per visit, including travel time, equipment preparation and wait ... but especially grueling for patients who are elderly and ... skilled nursing and rehabilitation centers for some duration of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016  Experian ... integrating and transforming the patient payment and ... several innovative new products and services that ... its revenue cycle offerings. These award-winning solutions ... efficient workflows, remain compliant in an ever-changing ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: