Navigation Links
Highly Effective Method for Screening Drug-resistant Forms of HIV Developed

University of Pennsylvania researchers have developed a new method for screening drug-resistance forms of HIV that saves both time and money.

Dr. Frederic D. Bushman, Professor of Microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, combined two genetic tests, which enabled him to rapidly obtained gene sequences from multiple drug-resistant HIV samples at once.

"There is considerable interest in identifying minor drug resistant variants prior to initiating new therapy, in order to allow treatment with the most effective drugs," explains Dr. Bushman, whose study appears online in Nucleic Acids Research.

"Treatment of HIV infection often fails because viruses mutate to resist drugs. Under the pressure of drug treatment, small populations of resistant viruses can quickly grow to become the majority, resulting in treatment failure due to drug resistance," he adds.

Around 40 million people across the world are currently living with HIV/AIDS, according to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The commonly prescribed cocktails of antiretroviral drugs help slow the debilitating effects of the virus by disrupting it at various stages in its replication, but still quickly mutating forms of HIV can complicate treatment outcomes.

The researchers reckon that nearly 50 per cent of individuals being treated for HIV in the US carry drug-resistant forms of HIV, which was either caused by mutations in the virus in response to drug treatment or by infection with a resistant form of the virus. They feel that the increased availability of antiretroviral drugs to meet the HIV/AIDS needs of developing countries in recent years may lead to a global rise in drug-resistant strains of HIV.

"To overcome drug resistance, patients must be treated with drugs to which the HIV virus is still susceptible," says Bushman.

Due high costs of Antiretroviral resistance screenings, which help tailor the most effective anti-HIV treatment before a patient begins or changes drug therapy, developing countries rarely use them. Where resistance testing is available, most screening techniques are not sensitive enough to analyse small populations of drug-resistant strains of HIV.

With a view to increase the sensitivity of HIV screening techniques and decrease the time and cost of the tests, Dr. Bushman examined seven samples of mutated strains of HIV, including three HIV samples from patients who had experienced antiretroviral multi-drug resistance.

The DNA bar coding, wherein different DNA molecules are indexed using DNA sequence tags, helped the researcher map multiple sequences of HIV mutants simultaneously. He identified drug-resistant mutations by using a new DNA sequencing technique called pyrosequencing, which enables determination of millions of bases of a DNA sequence in a single one-day experiment.

When the two methods were combined, the researchers were able to quantify and characterize hundreds of thousands of HIV variants for drug resistance in a single test. The new screening technique also uncovered four rare, minor drug-resistant mutations in the patient samples of HIV that had gone undetected by standard screening measures.

Dr. Bushman believes that these small drug-resistant populations of HIV may explain why some patients do not respond to antiretroviral treatment, as the minor alleles can rapidly grow out, generating new populations of drug-resistant viruses.

He is now planning to apply the new method to optimise drug-resistance testing in the US, and several developing countries.

"Thanks to DNA bar coding and pyrosequencing, clinicians should be able to optimize treatment for their patients with much more relevant information in front of them," says Bushman.


Related medicine news :

1. Highly Educated More Prone To Parkinsons Disease
2. Alzheimers Disease Progresses Rapidly In Highly Educated
3. Mapping Of Brain Highly Beneficial For Safer Brain Tumor Surgery
4. Highly Pure Form Of heroin Proving To be lethal Killer
5. Highly Potent TB Strain Plays Favorites Targeting Specific Ethnic Groups
6. Highly-Concentrated Botulinum Preparation Can Result in Severe Illness
7. Therapy Modulates Highly Sensitized Immune System to Let Mother Give Kidney to Daughter
8. Act Now To Cleanse Highly Polluted River Hindon, Says Study
9. Four Gay Men Carrying Highly Multiple-drug Resistant Strain of HIV Reported
10. New Treatment For Psoriasis Is Highly Effective
11. Nonsurgical Therapy Highly Effective for Pain and Infertility in Men
Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... “While riding the bus, I ... Bronx, N.Y. “I thought there had to be a convenient and comfortable way to ... The PROTECTOR enables disabled individuals to safely travel during cold or inclement weather. In ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... , ... November 25, 2015 , ... ... (PHA) announces the nation’s Periwinkle Pioneers, individuals and groups responsible for advancing care ... disease. The Periwinkle Pioneers, nominated by the public, will receive special recognition throughout ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... ... philanthropic seniors, is resulting in a way for homeless people to have a ... have launched a new initiative whereby they are repurposing plastic bags into sleeping ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Since its launch in 2012, ... adult stem cell therapies to patients with chronic degenerative medical conditions. Now, the ... Registered Trademark (RTM). , Organizations are required to hold a registered trademark in ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Genesis Chiropractic Software ... software creates an agreement between the practice owner and the patient that automatically ... notification, and projections. Click here to learn more. , ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... FRANCISCO , Nov. 24, 2015  Thanks to ... Dignity Health St. Mary,s Medical Center,s Sister Diane Grassilli ... breast imaging capabilities in San Francisco ... an anonymous friend, stepped forward with a gift of ... for Breast Digital Mammography with Tomosynthesis and Whole Breast ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Colo. , Nov. 24, 2015  Array ... that its Chief Executive Officer, Ron Squarer ... Healthcare Conference in New York.  The public is ... webcast on the Array BioPharma website.Event:Piper Jaffray Annual ... , Wednesday, December 2, 2015Time:1:30 p.m. Eastern Time ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... HOUSTON, TX and VANCOUVER, Nov. 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... EPI; NASDAQ: EPIX ) announced today that the ... clinical study of EPI-506 as a treatment for metastatic ... States and Canada.  --> ... --> In the Phase 1/2 clinical trial, ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: