Navigation Links
Growth Of Maple Trees Affected By Acid Rain

A new study conducted by researchers from Cornell University has pointed out to the reduction in the number of sugar maple trees as a consequence of acid rain// and alteration in the soil nature due to increase in cars, burning of fossil fuels and establishment of factories in the U.S.

The sugar maple is the most economically valuable tree species in the eastern United States because of its high-priced lumber, syrup and tourist-attracting fall colors.

The study, whose lead author, Stephanie Juice '04, was an undergraduate when the research was conducted, suggests that because acid rain makes the soil more acidic, unfavorable conditions are created for sugar maples. In acidic soils, sugar maples produce fewer seedlings that survive and mature, and more adult trees die, the researchers found. They drew these conclusions after adding nutrients to soil in a test plot and reproducing the favorable soil conditions that existed prior to 20th century industrial pollution. The result: Sugar maples on the plot rebounded dramatically.

The study provides ‘the most conclusive evidence to date’ that the decline of sugar maples is linked to the effects of acid rain produced by human activity, said Timothy Fahey, professor of forest ecology at Cornell and co-author of the study, which is published in the May issue of Ecology. Juice wrote the main part of the paper as part of her senior thesis.

‘The research addresses how a long-term, human-caused change in the environment is affecting sugar maples, which are valuable both ecologically and economically as one of the dominant species in our region,’ said Juice, who now works for the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Milbrook, N.Y., as a project assistant and is applying to the Peace Corps for next year.

The research was conducted at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), a 3,160-hectare reserve near North Woodstock, N.H., where scientists have measured soil composition fo r the past 50 years. The scientists added nutrients in a test plot to replicate soil conditions that existed prior to the loss of sugar maples over the past 25 years.

Nitric and sulphuric acid in acid rain leaches calcium from the soil. Calcium is the second most abundant plant nutrient (after nitrogen). In addition, the loss of calcium leads directly to more acidic soils. When soils become too acidic, such trees as sugar maples become stressed and have a harder time growing or producing seeds and seedlings.

‘Because of the detailed measurements for the last 50 years, we know almost exactly how much calcium was removed by acid rain,’ said Fahey. ‘Our treatment was designed to replace just that amount of calcium to bring the system to what it was like prior to the acid rain era.’

The study used two 10-hectare (25-acre) watersheds. On one 25-acre site, a calcium-rich mineral called wollastonite was spread in pellet form by helicopter in October 1999. The other site served as a control.

While the pellets dissolve slowly over five to 10 years, the researchers were surprised to find that by summer 2002, the soil acidity in both the top and lower layers of the test plot neutralized from being highly acidic to more acceptable levels for sugar maples. The researchers also found that by the second year, calcium levels in the maples' leaves had risen.

Acid rain also increases levels of the trace nutrient manganese in the soil, which can be toxic to trees in higher doses. By year four and five, manganese in the leaves had declined to healthier levels. In addition, seed production and the density and size of sugar maple seedlings all increased in the few years following treatment, compared with the untreated neighboring plot.

The researchers also found that the communities of mycorrhizae -- soil fungi that help provide more nutrients to plant roots -- were substantially greater around the roots of both seed lings and mature sugar maples in the treated plot. Future research will explore the relationship between mycorrhizae and acid rain.

Though pollution-control legislation has helped reduce sulphuric acid by one-third since its high point in the 1960s, nitric acid from automobiles has not significantly declined.

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study.

(Source: Newwise)
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Anti-Cancer Drug Restores Normal Cell Growth
2. Low-dose Growth Hormone (GH) with diet and exercise may help weight loss
3. Human Growth Hormone Found To be Dangerous For Human Use
4. Stem Cells Found To Offer Promise For Hair Growth
5. Fish Found To Improve Fetal Growth
6. Growth Patterns In Childhood Could Predict Breast Cancer Later In Life
7. Stopping The Growth Of Viruses
8. Stopping The Growth Of Viruses
9. Turmeric Found To Slow Down Melanoma Growth
10. Protein acts as "Master Switch" that cuts off cells Cancer-Growth machinery
11. Record Growth Of Soya-Based Dairy Alternatives Over The Past Year In European Markets
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/14/2016)... ... February 14, 2016 , ... Many eating disorder ... near their residence. The nature of the illnesses requires ongoing supervision, therapy and ... allotted at work to make traditional appointments. These people struggle to maintain recovery ...
(Date:2/13/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... February 13, 2016 , ... Hidden Cypress in Sun City is the ... of facial plastic surgery. Dr. Frederick Weniger will be hosting this educational seminar ... this event, and there will be special pricing on offers. In addition, prizes will be ...
(Date:2/13/2016)... ... ... Many individuals looking to lead a healthy lifestyle have decreased carbohydrate consumption and increased ... has delved into this niche allowing those giving up their beloved pasta a chance ... grams of protein and only 7 grams of carbohydrates per 50 gram serving--a ratio ...
(Date:2/13/2016)... ... 13, 2016 , ... In its newly released Infusion Therapy ... should be used to ensure patient safety when placing an IV catheter. A ... the use of vein visualization technology in patients with difficult venous access or ...
(Date:2/13/2016)... Montreal, Canada (PRWEB) , ... February 13, 2016 , ... ... best foot forward. They’ll groom themselves to perfection, go out of their way to ... their date – just take a look at any online dating profile. , ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/12/2016)... DPLO ) is pleased to announce the promotion of Paul Urick to Senior ... To learn more about our Diplomat executive team, ... ... ... In his redefined role at Diplomat, ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... , February 12, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... nicht anders vermerkt)   http://www.sedar.com ... http://www.telestatherapeutics.com abrufbar.    --> ... des Unternehmens http://www.telestatherapeutics.com abrufbar.    ... (TSX:TST; PNK:BNHLF) veröffentlichte heute seinen Konzernabschluss des ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ALISO VIEJO , Kalifornien, 12. Februar 2016 ... es mit der Aufnahme von Patienten für eine ... Embolisation von Aneurysmen („WEB") speziell für die Behandlung ... Laurent Spelle , MD, Leiter der Neuroradiologie an ... , Frankreich, und Hauptprüfarzt der CLARYS-Studie hat den ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: