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Glucose Sensor That Controls Glucose Metabolism Identified

LXR activating mechanism in the liver.

To their surprise, what Saez and his colleagues discovered was that glucose bound directly to LXR. This was unexpected because the carbohydrate does not conform to the standard definition of a typical ligand that activates nuclear receptors, transcription factors that coordinate gene expression in response to hormonal and environmental signals. This discovery, Saez said, represents the first signaling pathway where a carbohydrate activates a nuclear receptor, although the precise mode of binding remains unknown.

As part of the study, mice were put on exclusive sucrose or D-glucose diets; all diets were devoid of cholesterol to minimize naturally occurring oxysterols. D-glucose and GW3965 (a synthetic LXR activator) induced similar changes in hepatic gene expression, indicating that LXR functions as a glucose sensor in vivo that responds to increasing liver glucose uptake. The ability of the LXRs to respond to glucose and its derivatives was very specific: no effect was seen in other nuclear receptors tested.

The current study focused primarily on the role of glucose sensing in the liver and gut. New studies will focus on the question of whether glucose levels in other tissue types, such as the pancreas, activate LXR, Saez added.

Source-Eurekalert
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