Navigation Links
From genes to alcoholism

The most comprehensive examination of human genome with an aim to identify people most at risk for developing alcoholism has been done by the scientists at the Molecular// Neurobiology Branch of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health.

Identification of genes connected with substance abuse has been done with the help of the new genomic technology for the first time in this study. The December 2006 issue of the American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) will have the article on this study. The report can also be viewed online.

"Tools such as pooled data genome scanning give us a completely new way of looking at complex biological processes, such as addiction," says Dr. Elias A. Zerhouni, director of the National Institutes of Health. "The ability to pinpoint genes in the human genome responsible for disease has the potential to revolutionize our ability to treat and even prevent diseases."

"Previous studies established that alcoholism runs in families, but this research has given us the most extensive catalogue yet of the genetic variations that may contribute to the hereditary nature of this disease," says NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow. "We now have new tools that will allow us to better understand the physiological foundation of addiction."

"This is an important contribution to studies of the genetics of alcoholism and co-occurring substance use disorders," adds Dr. Ting-Kai Li, director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). "The findings will open many new avenues of research into common factors in genetic vulnerability and common mechanisms of disease."

NIDA researchers found genetic variations clustered around 51 defined chromosomal regions that may play roles in alcohol addiction. The candidate genes are involved in many key activities, including cell-to-cell communication, control of protein synthesis, regulation o f development, and cell-to-cell interactions. For example, one gene implicated in this study--the AIP1 gene--is a known disease-related gene expressed primarily in the brain, where it helps brain cells set up and maintain contacts with the appropriate neighboring cells. Many of the nominated genes have been previously identified in other addiction research, providing support to the idea that common genetic variants are involved in human vulnerability to substance abuse.

The scientists, led by Dr. George Uhl, included Ms. Catherine Johnson, Ms. Donna Walther, Dr. Tomas Drgon, and Dr. Qing-Rong Liu. Their team developed, validated, and applied a new genetic platform that allowed them to generate the equivalent of more than 29 million individual genotypes and to analyze 104,268 genetic variations from unrelated alcohol-dependent and control individuals. The scientists used DNA samples that were collected by investigators of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), a study funded by NIAAA that included Dr. Howard Edenberg, Dr. Tatiana Foroud, and Dr. John Rice, who are coauthors of the paper. These samples had been analyzed previously to look for genetic associations to alcoholism, but the resolution and coverage achieved in the present study are unprecedented.

"The observations from this study provide a graphic display of the close relationships between genetic vulnerability to alcoholism and genetic vulnerability to other addictions," says Dr Uhl. "Ongoing and future studies will help us to identify how the variations in these candidate genes contribute to differences in addiction vulnerability."

"We know that vulnerabilities to substance abuse involve complex traits with strong genetic influences," adds Dr. Volkow. "Finding ways to identify who is most physiologically vulnerable to addiction will be a tremendous step towards more effective prevention and treatment approaches."

The term "genome" refers to t he total genetic information of a particular organism. The normal human genome consists of about 3 billion base pairs of DNA in each set of chromosomes from one parent.

The term "genetic variation" is used to describe differences in the sequence of DNA among individuals. Genetic variation plays a role in whether a person has a higher or lower risk for getting particular diseases.

Source: Eurekalert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Cirrhosis linked to genes
2. Altering genes through calories
3. Predictable genes
4. Endometriosis coalesced with genes
5. Birth weight may be influenced by genes
6. New breast cancer genes discovered
7. Altitude sickness connected to genes
8. Jumping genes eliminate sections of DNA
9. Multiple organ disease cured by genes
10. Function of genes in heart failure
11. Discovering cholesterol-absorbing genes
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:12/8/2016)... ... December 08, 2016 , ... Bill Mull Agencies, ... owners in and around central Kansas, is joining the Youth Horizons organization for ... region. , Headquartered in Wichita, Youth Horizons works to empower area children from ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... ... Kenall Manufacturing, a leader in sealed healthcare lighting for more than 30 ... sealed, LED luminaire that meets the needs of everyone in the patient room by ... , A 2’ x 4’ model features four modes: reading, ambient, standard and high ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... December 07, 2016 , ... OC87 Recovery Diaries ... schizophrenic mother in a unique, personal perspective through animation. , That woman ... addictive disorders at her private psychotherapy practice. Sheri’s mother, Pearl, lived with schizophrenia. ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... 07, 2016 , ... Castle Dermatology Institute is now offering liquid facelifts with ... youthful appearance to the face. Dr. Peyman Ghasri and Dr. Pedram Ghasri, San ... treatments, to rejuvenate and renew the facial appearance. , Sculptra is a highly ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... Fl (PRWEB) , ... December 07, 2016 , ... When it came time to blow ... heart. Just 40 minutes later, the Pediatric Heart Transplant team at Joe DiMaggio ... making the Weston teen the hospital’s 30th heart transplant recipient. , “He was playing ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:12/8/2016)... DALLAS , Dec. 8, 2016 Dignitana, ... an exclusive partnership with Boa® Technology, creator of the ... fit cap for use with the DigniCap® scalp cooling ... Drug Administration in December 2015, and is the first ... The DigniCap® scalp cooling system features a patented ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... 8, 2016  Economic growth in the United States ... supply management executives in their December 2016 Semiannual Economic ... recovery that began in mid-2009, as indicated in the ... ® . The manufacturing sector is optimistic about growth ... manufacturing industries, and the non-manufacturing sector indicates that 14 ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... PUNE, India , December 8, 2016 According ... (Diagnostic (Heart, Pulse, BP, Sleep, Fetal), Therapeutic (Pain, Insulin)), End Use (Sports, ... to 2021", published by MarketsandMarkets, the global market, in terms of value, ... in 2016, at a CAGR of 18.0% during the forecast period. ... ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: