Navigation Links
Effect of ADHD Drugs on the Brain - Study Finds

Investigating on the target areas, where ADHD drugs act, researchers have concluded that it primarily targets the prefrontal cortex (PFC) region of the brain //rather than on accumbens and medial septum regions.

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison found how the drug Ritalin used in treating the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), works in the brain.

But new work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is now starting to clear up some of the mystery. Writing in the journal Biological Psychiatry, UW-Madison researchers report that ADHD drugs primarily target the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region of the brain that is associated with attention, decision-making and an individual's expression of personality.

The finding could prove invaluable in the search for new ADHD treatments, and comes amidst deep public concern over the widespread abuse of existing ADHD medicines.

'There's been a lot of concern over giving a potentially addictive drug to a child [with ADHD],' says lead author Craig Berridge, a UW-Madison professor of psychology. ‘But in order to come up with a better drug we must first know what the existing drugs do.'

A behavioral disorder that afflicts both children and adults, ADHD is marked by hyperactivity, impulsivity and an inability to concentrate. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that 2 million children in the U.S. suffer from the condition, with between 30 to 70 percent of them continuing to exhibit symptoms in their adult years.

Despite public anxiety over the treatment of a behavioral condition with pharmacological drugs, doctors have continued to prescribe meds like Adderall, Ritalin and Dexedrine because - quite simply - they work better than anything else.

ADHD drugs fall into a class of medications known as stimulants. ADHD stimulants boost levels of two neurotransmitters, or chemical messengers in the brain, known as dopa mine and norepinephrine. Dopamine is thought to play a role in memory formation and the onset of addictive behaviors, while norepinephrine has been linked with arousal and attentiveness.

Berridge notes that scientists have learned little about how ADHD drugs work because past studies have primarily examined the effects of the medicines at high doses. High-dose stimulants can cause dramatic spikes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain, which can in turn impair attention and heighten the risk of developing addiction.

'It is surprising that no one was looking at low-dose [ADHD] drugs because we know that the drugs are most effective only at low doses,' says Berridge. 'So we asked the natural question: what are these drugs doing at clinically relevant doses?'

To answer that question, Berridge and his team monitored neurotransmitter levels in three different brain regions thought to be targeted by ADHD drugs: the PFC and two smaller brain areas known as the accumbens which has been linked with processing 'rewards,' and the medial septum, which has been implicated in arousal and movement.

Working with rats, the researchers conducted laboratory and behavioral tests to ensure that animal drug doses were functionally equivalent to doses prescribed in humans. Then, using a type of brain probe - a process known as microdialysis - the UW-Madison team measured concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine in the three different brain areas, both in the presence and absence of low-dose ADHD stimulants.

Under the influence of ADHD drugs, dopamine and norepinephrine levels increased in the rats' PFC. Levels in the accumbens and medial septum, however, remained much the same, the scientists found.

'Our work provides pretty important information on the importance of targeting the PFC when treating ADHD,' says Berridge, 'In particular it tells us that if we want to produce new ADHD drugs, we need to target [neurotransmit ter] transmission in the PFC.'

In the future, Berridge and his colleagues plan to look deeper within the PFC to gain more detailed insights into how ADHD meds act on nerves to enhance cognitive ability.

Other researchers who contributed to the study include UW-Madison co-authors David Devilbiss, Matthew Andrzejewski, Ann Kelley, Brooke Schmeichel, Christina Hamilton and Robert Spencer, and Yale Medical School researcher Amy Arnsten.

(Source: Eurekalert)

Related medicine news :

1. New Way to "See" Genes, Evaluate Effectiveness of Gene Therapies Discovered
2. Inhaled Steroids Safe & Effective for Children with Asthma
3. Acupuncture May Help Chemotherapy Side Effects
4. ZD1839 Proves Effective - A Breakthrough in fighting Lung Cancer
5. Fluoride Found Effective in Osteoporosis
6. Aspirin and Warfarin Are Equally Effective for Stroke Prevention
7. Implantable Contact Lens Found Safe and Effective
8. Effective And Economical Agent For Anthrax
9. Stem Cell Transplants May Be Effective For MS Patients
10. Chemotherapy Pill Has Fewer Side Effects Than IV
11. Effect of Osteosarcoma predicted by scans
Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/25/2015)... Nairobi (PRWEB) , ... November 26, 2015 , ... ... African Union Commission (AUC), European Union (EU), ANDI Pan African Centres of Excellence, ... Nations Office in Nairobi (UNON) for the opening of the 5th African Network ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Lakeview Health, a Jacksonville-based ... celebrate their sobriety and show through pictures what a positive difference it makes. ... Thanksgiving with the hashtag #FacesOfGratitude on their Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts. ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... Crystal Lake, IL (PRWEB) , ... November 25, 2015 , ... ... pleased to announce a recent successful appellate decision obtained by Attorneys Francisco J. Botto ... the case Adcock v. Illinois Workers’ Compensation Comm’n, 2015 IL App (2d) 130884WC. , ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... , ... Beddit® has launched a new Android app for use ... a more intuitive SleepScore™ that rates sleep quality on a 100-point scale and makes ... by a proprietary algorithm. Beddit analyzes the data to provide an easy to understand ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Today, Mothers Against Drunk Driving ... dropped below 10,000 for the first time since 2011. In 2014, there were 9,967 ... data released by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 32,675 people were killed ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... , Nov. 25, 2015  Linden Care, LLC, ... optimizing treatment outcomes for patients suffering from chronic pain, ... for a Temporary Restraining Order (TRO) enjoining Express Scripts ... two companies. --> --> ... all of its legal options. --> ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... AVIV, Israel , November 25, 2015 ... (NASDAQ: KTOV ) (TASE: KTOV), a biopharmaceutical company ... simultaneous treatment of various clinical conditions, today announced the ... 3,158,900 American Depository Shares ( ADSs ), each representing ... purchase up to 3,158,900 ADSs. The ADSs and warrants ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... DUBLIN , Nov. 25, 2015 Endo International ... Rajiv De Silva , President and CEO, will discuss ... Healthcare Conference in New York on ... . Click on Investor Relations, and then the ... prior to the presentation,s start time to visit the site ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: