Navigation Links
Decision-Making Enabled By Neurons: Value Assigned To Available Choices.

Researchers at Harvard Medical School have been able to pinpoint the neurons that are capable of deciphering the value that people attach// to different items. The activity of these neurons predicts the nature of decision making, when a person needs to choose from an array of items available.

To quote the words of Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, PhD, HMS research fellow in neurobiology and lead author of the paper 'We have long known that different neurons in various parts of the brain respond to separate attributes, such as quantity, color, and taste. But when we make a choice, for example: between different foods, we combine all these attributes--we assign a value to each available item. The neurons we have identified encode the value individuals assign to the available items when they make choices based on subjective preferences, a behavior called 'economic choice.'

We are making choices everyday, and some of them range between a choice of working and earning more or enjoying more leisure time, or choosing to invest in bonds or in stocks. There is an apparent neural bases of an economic choice, which actually involves assigning value to the available options in front of us. Now, researchers are trying to comprehend the brain mechanisms that are actually working to make this possible.

In the study, Padoa-Schioppa and John Assad, PhD, HMS associate professor of neurobiology, found a sizeable number of neurons located in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that assigns values to different goods on a common value scale. Assigning values on a common scale allows comparing goods, like apples and oranges, that otherwise lack a natural basis for comparison.

Padoa-Schioppa says 'The activity of these neurons reflects the value subjects assign to the available goods when they make choices. A concrete possibility is that various choice deficits may result from an impaired or dysfunctional activity of this population, though this hypothesis remains to be tested.'

In the experiment conducted by Padoa-Schioppa, macaque monkeys were observed making a choice between two types of juice offered in different amounts. Dung the course of some trials, the monkeys chose between one drop of grape juice and one drop of apple juice. In other trials, the monkey chose between one drop of grape juice and two drops of apple juice, etc Padoa-Schioppa observed a compromise between the type of juice and the quantity of juice, portraying that the value attached by the monkey to one drop of grape juice is approximately equal to the value the monkey assigns to three drops of apple juice.

These choices made by the monkeys were linked to the neuron activity. The activity of one particular neuron could be low when the monkey chose one drop of grape juice or when it chose three drops of apple juice. The activity of the same neuron might have been moderately high when the monkey chose two drops of grape juice or when it chose six drops of apple juice. And the activity of the same neuron would have been high when the monkey chose three drops of grape juice or when it chose 10 drops of apple juice.

This means that the activity of such OFC neurons is important that actually assigns the value chosen by the monkey, which is exclusive of any of the traits of the juice, either taste or quantity. The choice pattern exhibited by the monkeys, could be based on the activity of these neurons.

Source: Eureka Alert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Decline in Concentration, Decision-Making and Problem-Solving
2. Understanding the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Decision-Making
3. Micro vascular Disease Enabled with a Superior Test, Courtesy: Women’s Heart Progra
4. Reflecting On Personal Values Can Lower Stress Responses
5. Learning the Value of Prevention and Treatment in Oral Clefting
6. Warm Watermelon Scores Over Cold In Nutritive Value
7. HIV RNA Level Seen As Little Value In Predicting Treatment
8. Gene Tests to Identify Ovarian Cancer Have Little Clinical Value
9. French Psychiatrists to Study Indian Value System
10. Umbilical Cord Blood Banking of Negligible Value: Experts
11. Study Sheds Light on Value of Newer Antipsychotic Drugs for Schizophrenia
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:8/16/2017)... ... August 16, 2017 , ... ... through affiliations and de novo development, today announced Cumberland Skin Surgery and ... Skin Surgery and Dermatology, with offices in both Hermitage and Lebanon, Tennessee, provides ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... ... ... LabRoots , the leading provider of educational and interactive virtual events ... Andrew Ly as the winner of the LabRoots Summer Textbook scholarship, awarding him $1000 ... is in his third year at the University of California, Los Angeles majoring in ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... August 16, 2017 , ... Fusion Flix ... premium original programming over four countries and millions of viewers in a partnership with ... rent or buy On-Demand and fully available on Blu Ray disc in 2018. Proceeds ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... ... August 16, 2017 , ... ... new client win in the healthcare market, with Los Angeles-based AIDS Healthcare Foundation ... staff and members. , AHF cares for nearly 800,000 individuals worldwide and is ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Rollon Skin Care Ltd., one ... announced the launch of two new skincare products, Prache Antiaging Cream and Prache ... plastic surgery or in-patient cosmetic dermatological procedures. , “Prache Antiaging Cream and Prache ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:8/2/2017)... , Aug. 2, 2017 CaryRx, a next-generation ... day delivery service for patients in the Washington ... traditional retail pharmacy by providing delivery of medications through the ... for future delivery or delivered within one hour to any ... are excited to bring this invaluable service to ...
(Date:7/31/2017)... 7D Surgical, developer of ground breaking surgical navigation ... Surgical System to support its strategic sales plan in ... and Virginia.  7D Surgical has entered into an exclusive sales ... medical facilities within those markets. ... Spartan Medical Purchases ...
(Date:7/27/2017)... 2017  West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc. (NYSE: ... second-quarter 2017 and updated financial guidance for the full-year ... Highlights Reported net sales of $397.6 ... quarter. Net sales at constant currency (organic) grew by ... $0.51, compared to $0.60 in the prior-year quarter. Second-quarter ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: