Navigation Links
Consequences Of Smoking On Fractures & Ligament Injuries

Two studies associated with smoking have resulted in delayed healing in mice. It is quite shocking to know that over 8.6 million illnesses //in U.S., having harmful effects on variety of orthopedic conditions are reported annually due to Cigarette Smoking. Studies have proved that the toxins contained in cigarette can undermine fracture and ligament repairs following injuries. In addition, smokers are highly prone to hip fractures, healing problems, bone infections and soft tissue wound healing.

Two new studies, funded by the National Institutes of Health and the National Football League Charities, examined the effects of smoking on fractures and ligament healing in mice and found that healing of both types of injury was delayed. The studies are published in the December 2006 issue of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/
journal/jor), the official journal of the Orthopaedic Research Society.

Led by Hossam B. El-Zawawy of the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO the first study involved 35 mice divided into a smoking group, which was exposed to cigarette smoke 6 days per week for a month, and a control group. Surgery was performed on all the mice to achieve a simple fracture. Researchers used type II collagen expression as a marker of cartilage formation (chondrogenesis) during healing. They found that smoking delayed fracture healing and that it began at the early stages of the healing process, although over time it did not inhibit normal healing. Specifically, they were able to show that there was a delay in the development of mature cartilage cells in the mice exposed to cigarette smoke. This was the first study to analyze the molecular and cellular mechanisms of fracture healing in mice exposed to smoke.

The authors note that while the study shows a clear relationship between smoking and cartilage formation, smoking probably has other effects on fracture healing, which sho uld be addressed in future studies. They conclude: 'Clinically, if specific events can be identified, smoking cessation in humans, even temporarily, may improve or speed the healing process after injury and decrease the significant morbidity associated with cigarette smoking during fracture healing.'

In the second study, involving the same group of researchers but led by Corey S. Gill, researchers examined the effects of smoking on medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury. They performed MCL surgery on 40 mice, half of which were exposed to cigarette smoke 6 days a week for two months. Researchers quantified cellular density at the site of injury and used Type I collagen gene expression as a marker for the formation of extracellular matrix, the material outside of cells that provides tissue support. The results showed for the first time that cellular density in mice increased between 3 and 7 days after injury in normal wound healing, and that this was partially inhibited in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Based on their findings, the authors suggest that this delay is due to a difference in the recruitment of cells to the site of injury.

In addition, the study found that mice exposed to smoke had impaired or delayed extracellular matrix development, shown by lower collagen type I gene expression, one week after injury. This may lead to a delay in restoring biomechanical stability of the healing MCL. The authors conclude: 'Ultimately, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the MCL healing process will allow physicians to improve or speed the healing process, as well as potentially overcome the deleterious effects of smoking on ligament healing.'

Source-Eurekalert
SRI
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. The Consequences Of Stopping Physical Activity
2. WHO Steps Up To Create A Public Awareness About The Consequences Of Exposure To Radon
3. Risk Attitudes And Consequences Of College Drinking
4. More Women Opting for Caesarean, Unaware of Consequences
5. New hope on the Horizon for People Wishing to Quit Smoking
6. Cancers of Colon & Rectum linked to Cigarette Smoking
7. Smoking a greater risk than HIV? Yes say health experts!!!!
8. Kick Smoking with Nicotine Drink
9. Smoking spreads Cancer
10. Prescription Drug - Helps People Stop Smoking
11. Quit Smoking
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:10/13/2017)... ... 13, 2017 , ... The Visiting Nurse Association (VNA) of Somerset Hills is ... vendors and unique items from across the nation, this holiday-themed event will raise funds ... by the VNA. The boutique will be open Saturday, November 4 (10:00 a.m. ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... ... Global Healthcare Management’s 4th Annual Kids Fun Run brought out many kids ... sponsored by Global Healthcare Management’s CEO, Jon Letko, is aimed at getting kids excited ... all ages; it is a non-competitive, non-timed event, which is all about having fun ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Talented host, ... lowdown on sciatica in a new episode of "Success Files," which is an ... and innovation and investigates each subject in-depth with passion and integrity. , Sciatica ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... ... “The Journey: From the Mountains to the Mission Field”: the story of ... Philippines. “The Journey: From the Mountains to the Mission Field” is the creation of ... taught all ages and currently teaches a class of ladies at her church, which ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... First ... compliance program management, will showcase a range of technology and learning solutions at ... (NCAL) Convention and Expo to be held October 14–18, 2017 at the Mandalay ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:9/28/2017)... WASHINGTON , Sept. 28, 2017 Cohen ... to advance the use of wearable and home sensors ... brain disorders. Early Signal Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused ... populations, will provide an affordable analytical system to record ... ...
(Date:9/23/2017)... 2017 Janssen Biotech, Inc. (Janssen) announced today ... the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the ... the treatment of moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis ... are needed to further evaluate the safety of sirukumab ... "We are ...
(Date:9/18/2017)... , Pa. and KALAMAZOO, Mich. , Sept. ... Penn. , and OptiMed Specialty Pharmacy of ... partnership to offer a strategic hub service that expedites ... highly sought-after personal spirometer, Spiro PD 2.0, and wellness ... A spirometer is a medical device used to measure ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: