Suppressed activity of several key chemicals on the inner lining of the nose are linked to chronic sinusitis that fails to respond to the usual current treatments according// to researchers at John Hopkins University.
An estimated 32 million Americans know the misery of persistent inflammation of the moist tissue that lines the nose and sinus cavities. The result is clogged passages and recurring infections, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Because nearly one in 10 of those treated see symptoms return within weeks or months after drugs or surgery fail to keep the sinus passages open, scientists have long suspected that these resistant cases had some underlying problem with the immune system contributing to the ailment.
In a study to be described on Sept. 19 at the annual scientific sessions of the American Academy of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, the Hopkins team found that in chronic sufferers who failed to respond to treatment, the activity of at least four genes in the body's nasal immune defense system were severely decreased, and their production of two proteins critical to this defense was 20 to 200 times less than normal.
Comparing nasal epithelial cell samples from nine patients who benefited from surgery with nine who did not, the Hopkins team discovered suppressed levels of human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) and mannose binding lectin (MBL) in those whose symptoms returned. The proteins are naturally produced in the nose whenever the immune system detects foreign bacteria or fungi, binding to invading pathogens, inactivating them and making them easily disposed of.
An earlier study published by the same team in the March-April issue of the American Journal of Rhinology also showed that sinus tissue from people with chronic sinusitis that resisted treatment had 30 times lower than normal activity of a so-called toll-like receptor gene, TLR9.
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