Navigation Links
Chancroid Vaccine Holds Promise In Reducing HIV Transmission

Researchers have reported success with a vaccine believed to protect against chancroid, a sexually transmitted disease//. If approved for use, it could put an end to this devastating disease that has been haunting sub-Saharan Africa. This could eventually result in a 10-fold reduction in transmission of HIV in the same region, if approved for commercial use. HIV plagues more than 25 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the World Health Organization, and efforts to develop a vaccine against the virus have achieved limited success.

But what if a vaccine against another sexually transmitted infection found widely in that region of Africa – chancroid – was relatively easy to develop and could reduce transmission of HIV as much as 10-fold?

That may be the case, according to researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's School of Medicine and N.C. State University's College of Veterinary Medicine.

Their study appears in the April issue of the journal Infection and Immunity. The lead author is Dr. Galyna Afonina, postdoctoral research associate in the UNC Center for Infectious Diseases. Senior author is Dr. Christopher Elkins, research associate professor in the departments of medicine and microbiology and immunology in UNC's School of Medicine.

Chancroid, a sexually transmitted disease that causes genital ulcers, is rare in the United States but takes hold in communities that have little or no access to health care, such as in Africa. Recent studies show that genital ulcer diseases such as chancroid can enhance HIV transmission three- to 10-fold.

‘There is considerable evidence that genital ulcers are independent risk factors for the transmission of HIV, and chancroid may be the most important one,’ said Elkins.

Chancroid is caused by a bacterium, Haemophilus ducreyi, that normally infects only humans. Unlike most bacteria, Haemophilus species are unable to synt hesize heme, the ferrous, or iron-containing, component of hemoglobin, and obtain it from host hemoglobin.

The researchers found that immunizing swine with a purified hemoglobin receptor protected the animals from a challenge infection, even after multiple attempts at infection.

Blood tests showed that the immunized pigs formed antibodies that prevented the chancroid bacteria from binding hemoglobin and, hence, obtaining the heme it needs to survive, the authors said.

In skin biopsies of the immunized animals, the researchers found no viable chancroid bacteria.

An HIV vaccine has been elusive in part because the virus constantly varies its surface molecules, making it an ever-changing target. But H. ducreyi, unlike other sexually transmitted bacteria, doesn't have such a protective mechanism.

The current study and other studies suggest that developing a chancroid vaccine would be a relatively simple task, Elkins said.

Commercial sex workers infected with chancroid form a ‘reservoir’ of infection, Elkins said. A vaccine strategy of vaccinating female sex workers against chancroid could shut down the cycle of infection, eliminating the disease of not only sex workers but their sexual partners.

And evidence suggests that eliminating chancroid throughout Africa could help reduce the transmission of HIV.

‘Diverting but a fraction of the effort on HIV potentially could rapidly lead to a chancroid vaccine. I believe it is imperative that international and U.S. agencies address this opportunity in a timely manner,’ Elkins said.

In addition to Afonina and Elkins, other UNC authors are postdoctoral research associate Dr. Isabelle Leduc and postdoctoral trainee Dr. Igor V Nepliouev, both of the Center for Infectious Diseases; Dr. Marcia Hobbs, research associate professor in the departments of medicine and microbiology and immunology; and Chrystina Jeter, former undergra duate research assistant in Elkin's lab.

Authors from N.C. State University's College of Veterinary Medicine are Patty Routh, research technician; Dr. Glen Almond, professor of population health and pathobiology; and Dr. Paul E. Orndorff, professor of population health and pathobiology and microbiology and immunology. Elkins said that further development of the vaccine studied is needed, including perfecting ways to purify large amounts of the hemoglobin receptor substance and testing it with an adjuvant approved for human use.

Source: Eurekaert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Chancroid Vaccine shows Promise for Control of AIDS
2. Vaccine to quit smoking?
3. First Vaccine Designed for Africa Cleared for Testing in Humans
4. Vaccine for Alzheimer’s diseas
5. Health Officials Recommend Flu Vaccine
6. Smallpox Vaccine May Help Fight Cervical Cancer
7. Panacea Biotech To Market Anthrax Vaccine
8. New Prostate Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise
9. Drug Firm Offers to Donate Smallpox Vaccine
10. Vaccine guards against shingles
11. Vaccine for septic conditions
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:10/12/2017)... ... 12, 2017 , ... Planet Fitness, one of the largest and fastest growing ... open a flagship location in Covington, LA at 401 N. U.S. Highway 190, in ... to Office Depot in the Holiday Square shopping center. Its location allows it to ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... The American College of Medical Informatics (ACMI) ... FACMI, during the Opening Session of AMIA’s Annual Symposium in Washington, D.C. AMIA’s ... Morris F. Collen, a pioneer in the field of medical informatics, this prestigious award ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... Restoration, has recently contributed a medical article to the newly revamped Cosmetic ... Mohebi’s article spotlights the hair transplant procedure known as Follicular Unit Extraction ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... ... On Saturday, October 21, the Health & Wellness Center at Florida Hospital ... for the American Heart Association Heart Walk. Teams of up to 10 people can ... their treadmills moving for 5 hours. Treadmills will start at 7:00 p.m. on Saturday, ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... in property taxes a year. In some states—like New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, ... contrast, many overseas retirement havens have extremely low property-tax rates, which contributes to ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/2/2017)... Mich. , Oct. 2, 2017 Diplomat ... 8th Day Software and Consulting, LLC , and ... 8th Day Software, based in Tennessee ... LLC. 8th Day expands EnvoyHealth,s service offerings for health ... development. "In an ...
(Date:9/28/2017)... Sept. 28, 2017 Hill-Rom Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: ... conference call and webcast on Friday, November 3, 2017, ... and ending at approximately 8:30 a.m. (CDT) / 9:30 ... company,s 2017 financial performance and guidance for 2018, Hill-Rom ... to enhance operational performance, and long-range financial outlook through ...
(Date:9/25/2017)... , Sept. 25, 2017  EpiVax, Inc., ... vaccine design, and immune-engineering today announced the launch ... the development of personalized therapeutic cancer vaccines. EpiVax ... provided exclusive access to enabling technologies to the ... MBA will lead EpiVax Oncology as Chief Executive ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: