Navigation Links
Chancroid Vaccine Holds Promise In Reducing HIV Transmission

Researchers have reported success with a vaccine believed to protect against chancroid, a sexually transmitted disease//. If approved for use, it could put an end to this devastating disease that has been haunting sub-Saharan Africa. This could eventually result in a 10-fold reduction in transmission of HIV in the same region, if approved for commercial use. HIV plagues more than 25 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the World Health Organization, and efforts to develop a vaccine against the virus have achieved limited success.

But what if a vaccine against another sexually transmitted infection found widely in that region of Africa – chancroid – was relatively easy to develop and could reduce transmission of HIV as much as 10-fold?

That may be the case, according to researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's School of Medicine and N.C. State University's College of Veterinary Medicine.

Their study appears in the April issue of the journal Infection and Immunity. The lead author is Dr. Galyna Afonina, postdoctoral research associate in the UNC Center for Infectious Diseases. Senior author is Dr. Christopher Elkins, research associate professor in the departments of medicine and microbiology and immunology in UNC's School of Medicine.

Chancroid, a sexually transmitted disease that causes genital ulcers, is rare in the United States but takes hold in communities that have little or no access to health care, such as in Africa. Recent studies show that genital ulcer diseases such as chancroid can enhance HIV transmission three- to 10-fold.

‘There is considerable evidence that genital ulcers are independent risk factors for the transmission of HIV, and chancroid may be the most important one,’ said Elkins.

Chancroid is caused by a bacterium, Haemophilus ducreyi, that normally infects only humans. Unlike most bacteria, Haemophilus species are unable to synt hesize heme, the ferrous, or iron-containing, component of hemoglobin, and obtain it from host hemoglobin.

The researchers found that immunizing swine with a purified hemoglobin receptor protected the animals from a challenge infection, even after multiple attempts at infection.

Blood tests showed that the immunized pigs formed antibodies that prevented the chancroid bacteria from binding hemoglobin and, hence, obtaining the heme it needs to survive, the authors said.

In skin biopsies of the immunized animals, the researchers found no viable chancroid bacteria.

An HIV vaccine has been elusive in part because the virus constantly varies its surface molecules, making it an ever-changing target. But H. ducreyi, unlike other sexually transmitted bacteria, doesn't have such a protective mechanism.

The current study and other studies suggest that developing a chancroid vaccine would be a relatively simple task, Elkins said.

Commercial sex workers infected with chancroid form a ‘reservoir’ of infection, Elkins said. A vaccine strategy of vaccinating female sex workers against chancroid could shut down the cycle of infection, eliminating the disease of not only sex workers but their sexual partners.

And evidence suggests that eliminating chancroid throughout Africa could help reduce the transmission of HIV.

‘Diverting but a fraction of the effort on HIV potentially could rapidly lead to a chancroid vaccine. I believe it is imperative that international and U.S. agencies address this opportunity in a timely manner,’ Elkins said.

In addition to Afonina and Elkins, other UNC authors are postdoctoral research associate Dr. Isabelle Leduc and postdoctoral trainee Dr. Igor V Nepliouev, both of the Center for Infectious Diseases; Dr. Marcia Hobbs, research associate professor in the departments of medicine and microbiology and immunology; and Chrystina Jeter, former undergra duate research assistant in Elkin's lab.

Authors from N.C. State University's College of Veterinary Medicine are Patty Routh, research technician; Dr. Glen Almond, professor of population health and pathobiology; and Dr. Paul E. Orndorff, professor of population health and pathobiology and microbiology and immunology. Elkins said that further development of the vaccine studied is needed, including perfecting ways to purify large amounts of the hemoglobin receptor substance and testing it with an adjuvant approved for human use.

Source: Eurekaert

Related medicine news :

1. Chancroid Vaccine shows Promise for Control of AIDS
2. Vaccine to quit smoking?
3. First Vaccine Designed for Africa Cleared for Testing in Humans
4. Vaccine for Alzheimer’s diseas
5. Health Officials Recommend Flu Vaccine
6. Smallpox Vaccine May Help Fight Cervical Cancer
7. Panacea Biotech To Market Anthrax Vaccine
8. New Prostate Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise
9. Drug Firm Offers to Donate Smallpox Vaccine
10. Vaccine guards against shingles
11. Vaccine for septic conditions
Post Your Comments:

(Date:6/26/2016)... ... June 26, 2016 , ... Pixel Film Studios Released ProSlice Levels, ... editors can give their videos a whole new perspective by using the title ... Pixel Film Studios. , ProSlice Levels contains over 30 Different presets to choose ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... TX (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... Austin ... of the American College of Mohs Surgery and to Dr. Russell Peckham for medical ... and highly effective treatment for skin cancer. The selective fellowship in Mohs Micrographic Surgery ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Dr. Calvin Johnson has dedicated ... has implemented orthobiologic procedures as a method for treating his patients. The procedure ... doctors to perform the treatment. Orthobiologics are substances that orthopaedic surgeons use to ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... June 19, 2016 is ... associated with chronic pain and the benefits of holistic treatments, Serenity Recovery Center ... suffering with Sickle Cell Disease. , Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a disorder of ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Diego, CA (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... with the American Cancer Society and the Road To Recovery® program to drive cancer ... to seniors and other adults to ensure the highest quality of life and ongoing ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016  MedSource announced today that ... e-clinical software solution of choice.  This latest decision ... value to their clients by offering a state-of-the-art ... relationship establishes nowEDC as the EDC platform of ... full-service clients.  "nowEDC has long been a preferred ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016 Research and Markets ... Market by Type (Organic Chemical (Sugar, Petrochemical, Glycerin), Inorganic ... Coating, Parenteral) - Global Forecast to 2021" report ... The global pharmaceutical excipients market is projected to ... of 6.1% in the forecast period 2016 to 2021. ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... Forecast to 2022" report to their offering. ... date financial data derived from varied research sources to present ... impact on the market during the next five years, including ... sub markets, regional and country level analysis. The report provides ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: