Navigation Links
Cellular Pathway Yields Potential New Weapon in Vaccine Arsenal

When a cell has to destroy any of its organelles or protein aggregates, it envelops them in a membrane, forming an autophagosome// , and then moves them to another compartment, the lysosome, for digestion.

Two years ago, Rockefeller University assistant professor Christian Münz showed that this process, called autophagy, sensitizes cells for recognition by the immune system’s helper T cells. But he didn’t know how often this pathway is used or how efficient it is. Now, a new study published online today in the journal Immunity goes a long way toward addressing these questions and shows that the pathway is so common that it could be a valuable new way of boosting vaccine efficacy.

There are two types of T cells: Helper T cells encourage their counterpart, killer T cells, to hunt down and attack invading pathogens. T cells typically recognize antigens only once they’re presented to them by major histocompatibility compex (MHC) scaffolding molecules on a cell’s surface. Antigens on MHC class I molecules are recognized by killer T cells and had originally been thought to come only from sources inside a cell (proteins from the nucleus or other cellular part); those on MHC class II molecules are recognized by helper T cells and had been thought to come from sources outside the cell, such as fragments of dead, infected cells. But as Münz discovered two years ago, an autophagy pathway allows intracellular antigens to be presented on MHC class II molecules.

Now Münz, head of Rockefeller’s Laboratory of Viral Immunobiology, and Dorothee Schmid, a graduate student in the lab, have shown that the autophagy pathway is far more widespread than they thought: They found that a surprising number of cells with MHC class II molecules on their surfaces used the autophagy pathway. In skin (epithelial) cells and two other types of immune cells (dendritic and B cells), 50 to 80 percent of the autophagosomes moved into the loading compartment for MHC cl ass II molecules. “For types of cells that upregulate MHC class II upon inflammation -- epithelial cells of infected organs, for instance -- one could assume that they might actually use the autophagy pathway fairly frequently,” Münz says.

Then, to test the pathway’s effectiveness, the researchers targeted an influenza antigen directly to autophagosomes. They found that they were able to increase antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules, subsequently boosting helper T cell recognition of viral antigens. “This targeting pathway could be very efficient for vaccine development,” Münz says, especially for recombinant viral vaccines like those against HIV. “Killer T cell responses are usually short-lived. But if you can increase recognition by helper T cells, then you’ll be more likely to maintain the killer T cell response and establish immunological memory.”

Source-ewswise
SRM
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Use of Cellular Phones associated with Increased risk of Brain Tumors
2. Researchers Discover Two Proteins Involved In Cellular Destruction Of HIV Virus
3. Unchecked Cellular Repair Pathway Causes Liver Cancer
4. New Way to Open Cellular Ion Channels, Implications for Drug Design
5. Cellular System Causing Destruction Of Faulty Proteins In Cystic Fibrosis Identified
6. Gene May Regulate Cellular Aging
7. Cellular Cues Identified for Stroke Recovery
8. Cocaines Use During Pregnancy May Cause Lasting Cellular Effects
9. Scientists Identify Cancer Pathway
10. Tooth Decay Bacteria Unaffected By Altered Biochemical Pathway
11. Unchecked Cellular Repair Pathway Causes Liver Cancer
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:1/19/2017)... ... January 18, 2017 , ... The CHP suggests that California drivers ... storm by slowing down and increasing the space between themselves and other vehicles, according ... car accident attorney Raymond R. Hassanlou notes that, rain or shine, drivers should always ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... ... January 19, 2017 , ... Connecticut Dermatology Group (CDG) ... a highly experienced and compassionate dermatologist. Dr. Kim brings an extensive background in ... “It is with considerable pleasure to welcome back Dr. Kim to the CDG team” ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... ... 19, 2017 , ... Sales Focus Inc. (SFI), a Maryland-based sales outsourcing company, ... Over the past 20 years SFI has been recognized as the world’s leader in ... clients into the US market. The new clients include: Panacea Pro, Campseekers, Contentmart, ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... , ... January 19, 2017 , ... Infinity® Massage Chairs ... plan and implement new sales and marketing strategies. Grover comes with a total of ... 5 and a half years as Executive Vice President of Direct Sales at Traeger® ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... ... January 19, 2017 , ... ... Osteopathic College of Proctology) announced today the opening of 3 medical offices ... http://www.hemorrhoidsremovalcenterscalifornia.com ): Hemorrhoids Center of Los Angeles (Beverly Hills), Hemorrhoids Center of ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:1/19/2017)... , January 19, 2017 The global  pacemaker market ... report by Grand View Research, Inc. The heightening prevalence of cardiac conditions coupled ... growth of Pacemaker globally. In addition, technological enhancements in these devices are supporting ... ... Grand View Research Logo ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... 18, 2017  ViewRay, Inc. (Nasdaq: ... only clinical MRI-guided radiation therapy system, announced today that ... $26.1 million through a private placement of its ... the financing and was joined by certain of ... Kearny Venture Partners, and an additional new institutional ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... Jan. 18, 2017  Magnetic Insight Inc., leader ... into an agreement with inviCRO LLC to develop ... imaging system based on inviCRO,s VivoQuant™ visualization and ... as a complete MPI solution package with the ... or cell imaging in vivo. MPI ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: