Navigation Links
Cellular Pathway Yields Potential New Weapon in Vaccine Arsenal

When a cell has to destroy any of its organelles or protein aggregates, it envelops them in a membrane, forming an autophagosome// , and then moves them to another compartment, the lysosome, for digestion.

Two years ago, Rockefeller University assistant professor Christian Münz showed that this process, called autophagy, sensitizes cells for recognition by the immune system’s helper T cells. But he didn’t know how often this pathway is used or how efficient it is. Now, a new study published online today in the journal Immunity goes a long way toward addressing these questions and shows that the pathway is so common that it could be a valuable new way of boosting vaccine efficacy.

There are two types of T cells: Helper T cells encourage their counterpart, killer T cells, to hunt down and attack invading pathogens. T cells typically recognize antigens only once they’re presented to them by major histocompatibility compex (MHC) scaffolding molecules on a cell’s surface. Antigens on MHC class I molecules are recognized by killer T cells and had originally been thought to come only from sources inside a cell (proteins from the nucleus or other cellular part); those on MHC class II molecules are recognized by helper T cells and had been thought to come from sources outside the cell, such as fragments of dead, infected cells. But as Münz discovered two years ago, an autophagy pathway allows intracellular antigens to be presented on MHC class II molecules.

Now Münz, head of Rockefeller’s Laboratory of Viral Immunobiology, and Dorothee Schmid, a graduate student in the lab, have shown that the autophagy pathway is far more widespread than they thought: They found that a surprising number of cells with MHC class II molecules on their surfaces used the autophagy pathway. In skin (epithelial) cells and two other types of immune cells (dendritic and B cells), 50 to 80 percent of the autophagosomes moved into the loading compartment for MHC cl ass II molecules. “For types of cells that upregulate MHC class II upon inflammation -- epithelial cells of infected organs, for instance -- one could assume that they might actually use the autophagy pathway fairly frequently,” Münz says.

Then, to test the pathway’s effectiveness, the researchers targeted an influenza antigen directly to autophagosomes. They found that they were able to increase antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules, subsequently boosting helper T cell recognition of viral antigens. “This targeting pathway could be very efficient for vaccine development,” Münz says, especially for recombinant viral vaccines like those against HIV. “Killer T cell responses are usually short-lived. But if you can increase recognition by helper T cells, then you’ll be more likely to maintain the killer T cell response and establish immunological memory.”

Source-ewswise
SRM
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Use of Cellular Phones associated with Increased risk of Brain Tumors
2. Researchers Discover Two Proteins Involved In Cellular Destruction Of HIV Virus
3. Unchecked Cellular Repair Pathway Causes Liver Cancer
4. New Way to Open Cellular Ion Channels, Implications for Drug Design
5. Cellular System Causing Destruction Of Faulty Proteins In Cystic Fibrosis Identified
6. Gene May Regulate Cellular Aging
7. Cellular Cues Identified for Stroke Recovery
8. Cocaines Use During Pregnancy May Cause Lasting Cellular Effects
9. Scientists Identify Cancer Pathway
10. Tooth Decay Bacteria Unaffected By Altered Biochemical Pathway
11. Unchecked Cellular Repair Pathway Causes Liver Cancer
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:12/2/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... December 02, 2016 , ... ... edition of "Cardiovascular Health" in USA Today, which covers the innovative treatments, therapeutic ... health while maintaining fulfilling lives. “We are prolonging life 6 years in the ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... ... 2016 , ... Sourced from the Isbre Springs beneath the 5,000 year old ... purity of just 6 ppm TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) in addition to its excellent ... in several ShopRite and FoodTown stores in NJ and received rave comments from consumers. ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... San Francisco, CA (PRWEB) , ... December 02, ... ... in digitally-enabled care journeys, announced today that it has raised $6.0 million in ... are inspired by Clarify Health’s conviction that patients and their caregivers can receive ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... ... 2016 , ... ‘Tis the season for giving! Today, 20 creative teams across ... Partnership and the Drug Enforcement Administration as part of the National Red Ribbon Week ... schools who decorated their campuses with this year’s Red Ribbon Week theme: “YOLO. Be ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... ... 30, 2016 , ... Standard Process, Inc. is proud to ... recognition of the largest closely held companies headquartered in Wisconsin. This marks the ... Standard Process was awarded the Talent Award for providing outstanding employee benefits. ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:12/2/2016)... , December 2, 2016 ... "In Vitro Diagnostics/IVD Market by Product (Instruments, Reagents, ... Application (Diabetes, Oncology, Cardiology, Nephrology, Infectious Diseases) - ... market is valued at USD 60.22 Billion in ... a CAGR of 5.5% during the forecast period ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... 2, 2016 On Thursday, December ... excellence in research, development and innovation in the biopharmaceutical ... was held in the presence of Sergey Tsyb, Vice ... Russian Federation , Natalia Sanina, First Vice Chairman ... , Head of Roszdravnadzor, National Service of Control in ...
(Date:12/2/2016)... -- bioLytical Laboratories, ein Weltführer bei schnellen Tests für Infektionskrankheiten, ... von Kenia eingeführt. Continue Reading ... ... (PRNewsFoto/bioLytical Laboratories) ... http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20161201/444905 ) bioLytical wurde durch die Clinton ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: