Navigation Links
Brain Controlled Movements Are Studied Using Robotic- Joystick

Implications possibly profound for stroke patient rehab Johns Hopkins and co-workers revealed, when the brain ‘learns’ to control certain muscle movements// slowly, the more likely it is to remember the lesson over the long run, from training a group of human subjects in operating a robot-controlled joystick. The investigators say, alteration in rehabilitation approaches used, was proved to be better for people who have lost motor abilities to brain injuries like stroke.

In a report on the work in the May 23 issue of PLoS Biology, the researchers built on their observations that some parts of the brain learn - and forget - fast, while others learn more slowly and more lastingly. Both types of learning are critical.

‘We believe our work is the first to show that motor learning involves different time scales and implies that the best strategy in rehabilitating a stroke patient should focus on slow learning because slow-learned motor skills will be maintained longer,’ says the report's senior author, Reza Shadmehr, Ph.D., a professor of biomedical engineering in the Institute of Basic Biomedical Sciences at Johns Hopkins.

Neuroscientists long have thought that two things are required for mastering such muscle control - time and error. Time refers to the need to ‘sleep on it,’ for the brain to somehow process and ‘remember’ how to carefully control muscles. As for error, it's thought that mistakes help the brain and muscles fine-tune fine movements. The requirement for time and error explains why repetition of simple movements day after day is used routinely in rehabilitating partially paralyzed stroke patients and those with other brain injuries.

To test the need for time in mastering muscle control, the research team designed a simple and short task. Fourteen healthy human subjects were asked to hold onto a robot-controlled joystick and keep it from moving as the robot driver pushed repeatedly - in quick pulses - to one side. T he joystick then pushed repeatedly in the opposite direction and again the subjects were asked to keep the joystick centered.

The research team found that after all this pushing in different directions the subjects still were inclined to push the joystick in the first direction, even when the joystick was perfectly centered and not moving. Somehow the brain and muscles in the arm had ‘learned’ this simple movement over the course of the experiment, which took only a few minutes, according to the researchers, showing that sleep is not required for learning such simple movements.

The robot-controlled joystick used in these experiments can measure precisely how hard and in what direction it's being pushed by the hand holding it. Using computer programs, the researchers then were able to apply mathematical equations to these measurements and calculate predictions of how the brain might be ‘learning’ these simple movements.

For example, by taking into account the number of repetitions it took for the subjects to push the joystick in the first direction to keep it centered and how long it took for the subjects to ‘forget’ how hard to push the joystick, the predictions suggest that the brain learns muscle control using at least two different steps.

First, the computer programs were able to tease out that the brain picked up the control task quickly, but actually forgot the task quickly as well. But, at the same time, the brain also was learning the same task more slowly, and that was responsible for the subjects' being able to ‘remember’ the initial joystick-pushing movement.

‘Rehab is about training, and you want to be able to train the slow-learning system to be successful,’ says Shadmehr.

As a next step, the team is interested in uncovering which parts of the brain are responsible for slow-learning. They hope that teasing this system apart will not only improve the understanding of brain function, but also tailo r therapy strategies to target slow-learning and increase recovery of muscle control after brain injuries.

Sorce: Eurekalert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Use of Cellular Phones associated with Increased risk of Brain Tumors
2. Brain death – How to cope with it
3. “Brain fingerprinting”- The new lie detectr
4. Nasal Spray Could Take Drugs Direct to Brain.
5. Virus Combats Brain Tumour
6. Nasal Spray Could Take Drugs Directly to Brain
7. Control of anger disorder connected to Brain Dysfunction
8. High Levels of Protein Linked to Brain Shrinkage
9. Brain damage affects artistic skill
10. Brain cells protected by new compounds
11. Brain changes observed in people with sleep apnoea
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:8/18/2017)... ... August 18, 2017 , ... The Dawn Johnson Insurance Group, ... new charity drive to generate community support for efforts to educate the local population ... treatments for all types of cancer. , Each day in America, roughly 4,600 ...
(Date:8/18/2017)... ... August 18, 2017 , ... Radabaugh & ... assistance to communities in North-Central West Virginia, is embarking on a cooperative charity ... in the area. , The Chestnut Mountain Ranch (CMR) is a Christ-centered boarding ...
(Date:8/18/2017)... ... August 18, 2017 , ... ... planning assistance that serves communities throughout southern Florida, is working to support the ... assets to children from low income families. , The Take Stock In Children ...
(Date:8/18/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... August 18, 2017 , ... ... and financial planning firm that serves residential and commercial clients in the greater ... drive to raise community support for the fight against cancer. , Founded by ...
(Date:8/18/2017)... Louis, Missouri (PRWEB) , ... August 18, 2017 , ... ... says Suzanne Tucker, Founder of St. Louis-based positive education company Generation Mindful. To help ... they help children learn social and emotional skills, she created the Time-In Toolkit, which ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:8/11/2017)... , Aug. 11, 2017 DarioHealth Corp. (NASDAQ: ... health and big data solutions, today announced that it ... August 14 and host a conference call at 9:00am ... operating and financial results and its strategy and outlook ... hosted by Erez Raphael , Chief Executive Officer, ...
(Date:8/7/2017)... Zimmer Biomet Holdings, Inc. (NYSE and SIX: ZBH), ... Board of Directors has approved the payment of a quarterly ... The cash dividend of ... 27, 2017 to stockholders of record as of the close ... are subject to approval of the Board of Directors and ...
(Date:8/4/2017)... -- Agragen, LLC, a Cincinnati -based ... and aquacultural feed sectors, announces a significant step ... AGR131.  This drug is designed to trap and ... patients suffering from inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid ... Biological pharmaceuticals currently used ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: