Navigation Links
Autoimmune Diseases – Newer Preventive Measure

A set of genetically caused diseases from type 1 diabetes to alopecia, from which the imbalance of killer cells and immune regulating system, autoimmune disease can be understood//.

By age 5, out of three problems – an underactive parathyroid, yeast infection of the skin and/or mucous membrane and adrenal gland insufficiency, two will result in a condition called APS1 (Mutation in the Aire gene) and nearly about 16 autoimmune diseases in a lifetime.

The same mutation causes a defect in iNKT cells, a type of regulatory cell that helps the immune system fight infections while suppressing errant T cells bent on attacking the body, Medical College of Georgia researchers say.

This finding opens new pathways for treating or preventing APS1, or autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, and potentially other autoimmune diseases as well, researchers report in the June issue of Nature Medicine.

The body should maintain a balance between killing and suppression,’ says Dr. Qing-Sheng Mi, immunologist and lead and co-senior author. ‘If you are killing too hard, it can induce autoimmune disease. If you regulate suppression too hard, you can get cancer. iNKT cells help maintain a healthy balance. But patients with autoimmune disease may not have enough functional iNKT cells.’

‘Aire controls the development and function of iNKT cells,’ says Drs. Jin-Xiong She, director of the MCG Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine and co-senior author. ‘This relationship means that iNKT cells are critical to most autoimmune diseases and manipulating the iNKT cell population is one possible way to cure autoimmune disease.’

A lipid purified from sea plants, called alpha-GalCer, is already under study as a way to boost iNKT cell numbers and fight autoimmune disease as well as cancer. iNKT cells’ reactivity to alpha-GalCer, prompted the scientists to use it as a marker to examine the status of these cells in a mouse missing the Ai re gene. That Aire knockout is a good model for humans with APS1.

They found significantly fewer iNKT cells in the thymus, spleen, liver and bone marrow and severely impaired maturation of those cells in mice missing the Aire gene. And the mice given alpha-GalCer had significantly reduced autoantibody production.

In 2001, Dr. Terry L. Delovitch and his colleagues at Canada’s Robarts Research Institute, including Dr. Mi, reported in Nature Medicine that using alpha-GalCer to boost iNKT cells and re-establish a healthy balance of good and bad immune cells prevented development of type 1 diabetes in an animal model for the disease.

But Drs. Mi and She say new iNKT boosters likely are needed because the action of alpha-GalCer somehow depends on individual genetic architecture as well as other factors. Under certain conditions, the drug can help or worsen an autoimmune disease by producing good or bad cytokines. That’s why it also has worked for some cancers and why a modified version of the glycolipid or totally different drugs may work better, Dr. She says. ‘By understanding more, we are better able to come up with better targets,’ he says.

‘iNKT development is still the big question,’ says Dr. Mi. ‘Not only how they develop, but how they develop properly.’

The researchers watched the key regulatory cells come out of the bone marrow and go to the thymus where all T cells go for a process of positive and negative selection and maturation. Positive selection eliminates cells that are dysfunctional. Negative selection is eliminating T-cells that recognize the body’s own proteins, Dr. She says. Other researchers recently confirmed that the Aire gene is involved in negative selection by controlling some protein expression in the thymus, Dr. Mi says. The thymus is supposed to express most body proteins so any T cells that would react to them can be eliminated through negative selection, he says. ‘But Aire’s role in prote in expression is not sufficient to explain all the clinical symptoms of patients with APS1,’ Dr. Mi says. ‘The Aire gene must have other immune functions.’

iNKT cells also go through a development process but via a somewhat different path than that of other T cells. MCG researchers have learned medullary epithelial cells in the thymus are critical to proper iNKT cell development. A defective Aire gene disrupts this natural nurturing relationship by disrupting medullary epithelial cell function, leading to insufficient numbers of iNKT cells.

‘Whether or not you develop autoimmune disease to a large degree depends on the balance of these bad T cells that recognize the body’s own protein and regulatory T cells,’ Dr. She says. ‘It’s all about balance.’

Dr. Mi received a Junior Faculty Travel Award from the American Association of Immunologists for the iNKT research during the association’s annual meeting in May.

The research was supported by the American Diabetes Association, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

Co-authors include Drs. Zhong-Bin Deng, Sunil K. Jushi, Zai-Zhai Wang, Li Zhou, Sarah Eckenrode, Ratnmani Joshi as well as Bing Yi from MCG and Dr. Delovitch and Ph.D candidate Dalam Ly from the Robarts Research Institute and the University of Western Ontario. br>
Source: Eurekalert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Asbestos Exposure Associated With An Increased Risk For Autoimmune Disease
2. New Oral Medication That Could Arrest Autoimmune Diseases In its early Stages
3. Autoimmune disorder caused due to mutation in cryopyrin protein
4. Gold Therapy- A Potential Treatment For Autoimmune Diseases
5. Autoimmune disorders studied in detail by U-M researchers.
6. Understanding Autoimmune Disease
7. A Single Biological Mechanism Behind Several Autoimmune Disorders
8. Researchers Discover New Molecular Path to Fight Autoimmune Diseases
9. Autoimmune Diseases can Be Prevented by Green Tea
10. In Chronic Diseases - Poor compliance of Patients with drug treatment
11. ICMR along with other International Research organisation with drug development for Neglected Diseases
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/5/2016)... Ontario (PRWEB) , ... February 05, 2016 , ... After ... Scarborough General Hospital Burn Unit, plastic and cosmetic surgeon Dr. Wayne Carman transitioned to ... Scarborough Hospital. He successfully completed his first three-year term as chief and began a ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... , ... February 05, 2016 , ... The American public ... such water may be safer than regular municipal or well water. The recent experience ... host Sharon Kleyne, could go a long way toward increasing public acceptance of recycled ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... February 05, 2016 , ... Pivot ... 2015 Best in KLAS: Software & Services for HIT Implementation Support & Staffing ... report independently ranks vendor performance by healthcare executives, managers and clinicians representing over ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... February 05, 2016 , ... ... CitiDent, announces that it is now welcoming orthodontist, Dr. Amanda Cheng, to ... a complete range of oral health care, including general dentistry, cosmetic treatments, periodontics, ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... February 05, 2016 , ... California Mobile Kitchens ... debut of their latest mobile kitchen model, featuring customizable stainless steel interiors and ... commercial kitchens for use anywhere in the U.S. Many of their units can ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/4/2016)... Feb. 4, 2016 Wegener Polyangiitis - ... Markets Direct,s, ,Wegener Polyangiitis - Pipeline Review, H2 ... therapeutic pipeline. This report provides comprehensive information ... with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment ... of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... LONDON , Feb. 4, 2016 ... Identifying and Commercializing First-in-Class Innovation ... disorder associated with chronic inflammation of the airways ... of COPD symptoms make the disease one of ... cause of death in the world. COPD is ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... 4, 2016 In response to the opioid abuse ... Commissioner for Medical Products and Tobacco, along with other FDA ... agency,s approach to opioid medications. The plan will focus on ... in pain access to effective relief. ... , Re-examine the risk-benefit paradigm for opioids and ensure that ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: