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Antibiotic Vancomycin May Trigger Dangerously Low Platelet Count

Researchers have linked vancomycin to an abnormal decrease in blood platelet count, a condition called thrombocytopenia//. If accompanied by uncontrollable bleeding, thrombocytopenia can be fatal.

Patients suspected of having thrombocytopenia, or low blood platelet count often associated with bleeding, can be tested for a special type of antibody to see if it is related to medications. For this study, the researchers obtained clinical information on 29 patients who tested positive for vancomycin-dependent platelet antibodies. The patients were seen at major U.S. hospitals.

“We found a close correlation between exposure to vancomycin, development of a vancomycin-dependent antibody, and the onset of severe thrombocytopenia accompanied by serious bleeding in most cases,” Says Dr. Aster. “Three of the 29 cases described ended fatally. Serious bleeding appears to have contributed to these outcomes.”

It is not widely recognized that vancomycin can cause thrombocytopenia. For that reason, the medication was continued in 15 of the 29 patients while other possible causes for the low platelet count were investigated, according to Dr. Aster. None of these patients had a rise in the platelet count until the vancomycin was discontinued and an alternative antibiotic started. The vancomycin was stopped early in the remaining 14 patients because it was suspected to be the cause of the thrombocytopenia. The platelet count of these patients rose to normal shortly thereafter.

In a separate study, the researchers found that 25 patients given vancomycin who did not develop thrombocytopenia did not develop antibodies.

“Vancomycin has been in widespread use for more than 25 years and can be a life-saving medication when used in the appropriate context,” says Dr. Aster. Since only a small fraction of patients given vancomycin produce antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia, the findings should have no impact on the clinical use of
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