r-related stressors and 19.3 types of torture. An average of 96.3 months had passed since their last torture experience. More than three-fourths (174) of the survivors had PTSD related to their torture at some point in their lives, 55.7 percent (128) had current PTSD, 17 percent (39) were currently depressed and 17.4 percent (40) had a past episode of major depression.
To more easily compare forms of torture, the researchers divided events into seven broad categories: sexual torture; physical torture; psychological manipulations, such as threats of rape or witnessing the torture of others; humiliating treatment, including mockery and verbal abuse; exposure to forced stress positions, such as bondage with rope or other restrictions of movement; loud music, cold showers and other sensory discomforts; and deprivation of food, water or other basic needs.
Participants who had undergone physical torture rated their experiences from 3.2 to 3.8 on the distress scale. Sixteen of the 33 stressors from other categories were rated in the same range of distress. "Sham executions, witnessing torture of close ones, threats of rape, fondling of genitals and isolation were associated with at least as much if not more distress than some of the physical torture stressors," the authors write. "There was thus substantial overlapping between physical torture and other stressors in terms of associated distress. The control ratings also showed a similar pattern."
Physical torture was not significantly associated with PTSD or depression, suggesting that both physical and non-physical treatments caused the conditions at similar rates. "The traumatic stress impact of torture (physical or non-physical torture and ill treatment) seemed to be determined by perceived uncontrollability and distress associated with the stressors," the authors continue.
The authors concluded that aggressive interrogation techniques or detention procedures involving depPage: 1 2 3 Related medicine news :1
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