Navigation Links
All Forms of Ill Treatment Cause Post Traumatic Stress Disorder-PTSD

A study report based on detainee interrogations finds that forms of ill treatment during captivity that do not involve physical pain—such as psychological// manipulation, deprivation, humiliation and forced stress position also cause as much mental distress and traumatic stress as physical torture.

Most widely accepted definitions of torture encompass both physical and mental pain and suffering, according to background information in the article. "After reports of human rights abuses by the U.S. military in Guantanamo Bay, Iraq and Afghanistan, a U.S. Defense Department working group report on detainee interrogations and a U.S. Justice Department memorandum on U.S. torture policy argued for a fairly narrow definition of torture that excludes mental pain and suffering caused by various acts that do not cause severe physical pain," the study authors write. The detention and interrogation procedures that are excluded from this definition include blindfolding and hooding, forced nudity, isolation and psychological manipulations.

Metin Basoglu, M.D., Ph.D., King’s College, University of London, and colleagues interviewed 279 survivors of torture from Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Luka in Republica Srpska, Rijeka in Croatia and Belgrade in Serbia between 2000 and 2002. The survivors (average age 44.4, 86.4 percent men) were asked which of 54 war-related stressors and 46 different forms of torture they had experienced. Each participant then rated each event on scales of zero to four for distress (where zero was not at all distressing and four was extremely distressing) and loss of control (where zero was completely in control and four was not at all in control or completely helpless). Then, they reported how distressed or out of control they felt overall during the torture. Clinicians also assessed the survivors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric conditions.

The participants reported an average of 19 wa r-related stressors and 19.3 types of torture. An average of 96.3 months had passed since their last torture experience. More than three-fourths (174) of the survivors had PTSD related to their torture at some point in their lives, 55.7 percent (128) had current PTSD, 17 percent (39) were currently depressed and 17.4 percent (40) had a past episode of major depression.

To more easily compare forms of torture, the researchers divided events into seven broad categories: sexual torture; physical torture; psychological manipulations, such as threats of rape or witnessing the torture of others; humiliating treatment, including mockery and verbal abuse; exposure to forced stress positions, such as bondage with rope or other restrictions of movement; loud music, cold showers and other sensory discomforts; and deprivation of food, water or other basic needs.

Participants who had undergone physical torture rated their experiences from 3.2 to 3.8 on the distress scale. Sixteen of the 33 stressors from other categories were rated in the same range of distress. "Sham executions, witnessing torture of close ones, threats of rape, fondling of genitals and isolation were associated with at least as much if not more distress than some of the physical torture stressors," the authors write. "There was thus substantial overlapping between physical torture and other stressors in terms of associated distress. The control ratings also showed a similar pattern."

Physical torture was not significantly associated with PTSD or depression, suggesting that both physical and non-physical treatments caused the conditions at similar rates. "The traumatic stress impact of torture (physical or non-physical torture and ill treatment) seemed to be determined by perceived uncontrollability and distress associated with the stressors," the authors continue.

The authors concluded that aggressive interrogation techniques or detention procedures involving dep rivation of basic needs, exposure to adverse environmental conditions, forced stress positions, hooding or blindfolding, isolation, restriction of movement, forced nudity, threats, humiliating treatment and other psychological manipulations do not appear to be substantially different from physical torture in terms of the extent of mental suffering they cause, the underlying mechanisms of traumatic stress and their long-term traumatic effects.

These findings do not support the distinction between torture versus "other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment." Although international conventions prohibit both types of acts, "such a distinction nevertheless reinforces the misconception that cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment causes lesser harm and might therefore be permissible under exceptional circumstances. These findings point to a need for a broader definition of torture based on scientific formulations of traumatic stress and empirical evidence rather than on vague distinctions or labels that are open to endless and inconclusive debate and, most important, potential abuse."


Related medicine news :

1. Humans, A Symbiotic Organisms Dependent On Other Life Forms For Existence
2. Junk Food Advertisements To Be Restricted In All Forms of Media
3. MP Forms Youth Network to Spread Awareness on AIDS
4. Genetic Pathways to Curable and Incurable Forms of Pancreatic Cancer Identified
5. Advances in Treatment of Cataracts
6. Recommendations for Treatment of Blood Pressue
7. Treatment for Menieres disease
8. Treatment for pre-menstrual syndrome is ineffective
9. Better Treatment for obesity
10. Gene Treatment for Heart Disease
11. More People Seeking Treatment for Depression
Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/25/2015)... ... ... Smiles by Stevens is pleased to announce the addition of ... patients are aware of the benefits of Botox® in the treatment of moderate facial ... discomfort, soreness, and pain as a result of Jaw Tension, TMJ (temporo-mandibular joint) disorder, ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... November 25, 2015 , ... Beddit® has launched a ... sleep tracking systems. The new app features a more intuitive SleepScore™ that rates sleep ... well you slept. The SleepScore is created by a proprietary algorithm. Beddit analyzes the ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... MI (PRWEB) , ... November 25, 2015 , ... In ... Presence Resurrection Medical Center (RMC) in Chicago, IL, UV Angel is evaluating the efficacy ... medical and surgical intensive care units (totaling 30 beds) from May 2014 through October ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... ... , ... Today, Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) learned that the ... the first time since 2011. In 2014, there were 9,967 fatalities involving an alcohol ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 32,675 people were killed in traffic crashes in ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... Spring, Md (PRWEB) , ... November 25, 2015 ... ... Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) announces the nation’s Periwinkle Pioneers, individuals and groups responsible ... history of this disease. The Periwinkle Pioneers, nominated by the public, will receive ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... -- Henry Schein, Inc., the world,s largest provider of health ... animal health practitioners, will unveil at the Greater New ... Pavilion , which brings together for the first time ... help any practice or laboratory enter the digital age. ... of experts appearing at the Pavilion. --> ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... -- Allergan plc (NYSE: AGN ), a ... start-up  biotechnology company focused on the development of ... by the F-Prime Biomedical Research Initiative (FBRI), today ... collaboration to support the discovery and development of ... Obsessive Compulsive disorders (OCD). ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... , Nov. 25, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... "Company") (NYSE: MR ), a ... medical devices worldwide, today announced that ... general meeting of shareholders at the ... Grand Century, 193 Prince Edward West Road, ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: