Navigation Links
Adult stem cells are sensitive to responses from the environment

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have disclosed that a specific variety of adult stem cell is capable of changing into bone, muscle, neurons or other// types of tissue depending on the response from the physical environment.

The researchers found that mesenchymal stem cells, which are commonly found in the bone marrow, are soliciting tangible clues from their local environment, allowing a transformation into different types of tissue. The researchers were also able to drive the stem cells according to requirement by simply altering the tenacity of the gel on which they were cultivated.

The researchers believe that their findings, which appear in the Aug. 25 issue of the journal Cell, could change the way in which people work with stem cells.

"Basically, mesenchymal stem cells feel where they're at and become what they feel," said Dennis Discher, a professor in Penn's School of Engineering and Applied Science. "The results begin to establish a physical basis for both stem-cell use against diseases and for stem-cell behavior in embryonic development,"

Much of the work in stem-cell science has involved the study of the chemical microenvironment, the soup of chemical messenger signals that are generally thought to guide stem cells through the process of differentiation, where relatively "blank" stem cells turn into specific cell types. For the first time, the Penn researchers have proven that the physical microenvironment is also crucial for guiding the cells through differentiation. According to Adam Engler, the first author on the study and a graduate student in the School of Engineering and Applied Science, soft microenvironments, that mimic the brain, guide the cells toward becoming neurons, stiffer microenvironments, that mimic muscle, guide the cells toward becoming muscle cells and comparatively rigid microenvironments guide the cells toward becoming bone.

"While I anticipated that t he physical environment might limit the fate of stem cells, I never really thought that it would be sufficient to direct cell fate," said Lee Sweeney, a coauthor of the study and chairman of Physiology in Penn's School of Medicine. "When I saw Adam's first images, I was stunned to see that the physical environment alone was telling the stem cells to become neurons or muscle or bone. "

Mesenchymal stem cells sense their environment through the force it takes them to push against surrounding objects. Each cell has its own skeleton and molecular motors that it uses as muscles. According to the researchers, the amount of force the stem cell needs to move its cellular muscles triggers an internal chemical signal that, in turn, directs the cell to differentiate.

"The cytoskeleton uses motors that, like our muscles, are based on the mechanical tension created by molecules of actin and myosin," Engler said. "When we deprive these stem cells of myosin, the cells do not respond to their physical environment, only their chemical environment."

But, the physical microenvironment can change due to injury and also in disease, which would make it difficult to use these stem cells in certain types of therapy. After a heart attack, for example, the heart becomes so scarred that stem cells seem ineffective in fixing the damage by turning into replacement cardiac muscle.

"The cardiac tissue may have been so damaged during the heart attack that the stem cells do not recognize the microenvironment as a guide for turning into heart muscle," Discher said; "however, our studies show that it might be possible to 'prime' stem cells for therapy in the lab, before implanting them in the heart, spine or whatever damaged environment you want to place them."

Source : Eureka Alert
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Baby Talk Better Than Adult Speech
2. A question on study of Adult Stem Cell
3. Adult COPD or asthma could be effectively treated with Xopenex
4. Adult stem cells in treatment for Multiple sclerosis (MS)
5. The Key To Prevention Of Heart Disease In Adults
6. The Harmful Effects Of Stress in Young Adults
7. Abuse in Childhood Could Result In Heart Disease in Adulthood
8. Adult bone health is dependent on lifestyle we live
9. Adult Stem Cells From Fat Tissues For Healing
10. Obese Adults Undergo Less Medical Tests And More Vulnerable To Diseases
11. A New Technique For Prediction Of Adult Height
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/22/2017)... ... May 22, 2017 , ... An inventor from Columbia, S.C., wants to ... wife’s hand was damaged in a firework accident, so she couldn’t grip a pen ... problems." , He then designed and created a prototype for the HELPEN HAND, a ...
(Date:5/22/2017)... ... May 22, 2017 , ... Faithfully following pop culture, people today are forever ... and shaped through fitness programs. It carries on to skin nourished, pampered and nurtured ... irresistible, radiant smile. CDA has found that just like a perfectly cut ...
(Date:5/21/2017)... ... ... 52, was found dead on the night of Wednesday, May 17, 2017. It can be ... rock industry would take his own life, but the extremely talented and admired singer ... role in the death of Chris Cornell . , Depression and Drug Use , ...
(Date:5/21/2017)... ... May 20, 2017 , ... ... text designs created specifically for use in Final Cut Pro X. The business-oriented ... media productions. Pixel Film Studios’ ProParagraph Corporate will deliver a professional and distinguished ...
(Date:5/21/2017)... ... May 21, 2017 , ... Florida Pain Relief Group, ... of its newest location at 109 Silver Palm Ave., Melbourne, on Monday, May 22. ... With the opening of the Melbourne practice, PPOA operates 23 pain management clinics in ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/18/2017)... , May 18, 2017  Two Bayer U.S. ... Association (HBA) during its recent 28 th ... City.  The event showcases HBA,s longstanding mission of furthering ... of healthcare. Cindy Powell-Steffen , senior ... U.S. Radiology division, and Libby Howe , a ...
(Date:5/15/2017)... ATLANTA , May 15, 2017  Amy Baxter ... the industry leader in noninvasive pain relief, was awarded ... MM&M magazine. Baxter was recognized at the MM&M ... New York City on May 10, ... helping the biopharma industry go "beyond the pill."  ...
(Date:5/12/2017)... May 12, 2017  The China and Canada ... that consumes less water, energy and detergent, and features a powerful ... LaughingU, a shoebox-sized washing machine that washes and sanitizes women,s panties ... ... is compact, and does not require an external water inlet. ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: