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ADHD Children Are Being Under-Medicated

sionals need to do a better job of explaining the risks and benefits of treatment," Todd says. "The vast majority of parents whose children were involved in this study reported that their kids improved with medication, and when used properly these drugs have been shown to be very safe."

Todd, who also is the chief of child psychiatry, says among the 1,251 kids in the study who did not have ADHD, some did take stimulant medications, but it was a very small percentage, only 3.6 percent of the boys and 2.6 percent of the girls.

He says, however, that in many cases, there's an understandable reason those children have sought treatment. The study found that most of the children without ADHD who took medication did have some symptoms of ADHD -- some hyperactivity or problems with inattention -- but not enough symptoms to meet formal diagnostic criteria as defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). The study also found that most of the kids who took medication without an ADHD diagnosis had a twin who did have the disorder.

"These children have what we might call subsyndromal, or mild, forms of ADHD, and they seemed to come from families where other children had full-blown ADHD," Todd explains. "We didn't find that children got these drugs because they had other problems, such as conduct disorder or a learning disability."

Reich says the eventual goal of studying twins is to learn what elements of ADHD are passed down in families. She says some aspects of the disorder are certainly genetic. Others may be related to environmental factors, and studying twins allows the researchers to tease out those influences. Todd says the hope is to identify genes that contribute to the disorder, or rather, the disorders.

"It's becoming clearer that ADHD is not a single problem but a group of disorders that have different causes but similar clinical expressions," he explains. "The
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