ors tightening emissions standards.
Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, a Republican, also called for an "Apollo program" and said reducing foreign dependence on oil was intrinsically tied to national security.
"It's frustrating and really dangerous for us to see money going to our enemies because we have to buy oil from certain countries," he said. "We should be supporting all the alternatives."
President Bush, in his State of the Union address this year, announced an initiative to cut U.S. gasoline consumption by 20 percent over the next 10 years through a combination of alternative fuels and more efficient automobiles. He also spoke of the promises of nuclear energy, coal, ethanol and cars that could run on rechargeable batteries.
Meanwhile, on the state and local level, several developments signal a possible shift among mayors, governors and state legislatures toward energy policies that focus more on renewable fuels and conservation measures.
Minnesota Gov. Tim Aplenty, a Republican, announced the "25 by 25" program last year, with a goal that 25 percent of the energy produced and used in the state come from renewable sources by 2025.
The Nevada legislature has voted to increase the percentage of renewable resources in how the state produces electricity in four out of the last five sessions, according to the National Governors Association.
Massachusetts Gov. Deval Patrick, a Democrat, announced a plan in late June to reduce high energy costs in the state within the next three years through conservation measures.
And New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg unveiled PlaNYC this summer, which includes 127 proposals to reduce greenhouse emissions by 30 percent by 2030 and a congestion charge for driving through certain parts of Manhattan.
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