Navigation Links
$1.5 Million Grant to Yale for Narcolepsy-Neurotransmitter Study

Yale School of Medicine researchers have received a $1.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study neurons// that play a major role in narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by daytime sleepiness. The NIH grant will further Yale research into narcolepsy and other disorders linked to neurons that produce the peptide hypocretin.

“The activity of these hypocretin cells is important for enhancing cognitive arousal and resisting sleep, and they may also play a role in anxiety and body weight regulation,” said the principal investigator, Anthony van den Pol, neurosurgery professor.

He said neurons send out long fibers, or axons, to other nerve cells and release either an inhibitor or excitatory neurotransmitter onto their target cells. A small number of these neurons make and secrete the transmitter hypocretin.

Hypocretin neurons actually make two neurotransmitters, hypocretin and dynorphin. The results of Van den Pol’s recent work, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, shows that these two transmitters, or peptides, have actions that oppose each other. Hypocretin increases the excitability of other nerve cells, whereas dynorphin inhibits the activity.

Van den Pol and first author, Ying Li, an associate research scientist, wondered what cellular value opposing neurotransmitters might have. They found that different target neurons in the brain show different responses to co-stimulation by the two peptides.

They came to this finding by using whole cell patch clamp recording, in which an ultra-thin glass pipette, like a very small straw, is used to record the electrical activity caused by movement of ions through channels in single nerve cells.

Van den Pol said that these neurotransmitters had different effects on different cell types. One target, MCH neurons, were excited by hypocretin but inhibited by dynorphin.

“This mi ght suggest that the two neurotransmitters would simply cancel the actions of each other,” van den Pol said. “But, interestingly, in the continuing presence of both neurotransmitters, the inhibitory MCH cell response to dynorphin rapidly declined, whereas the excitatory response to hypocretin persisted.” Therefore, he said, low levels of release of both transmitters might favor inhibition, whereas high levels of release might swing the tide over to excitation and increase cognitive arousal.

However, on another target, NPY neurons, hypocretin directly excited the cells, byt dynorphin had little direct effect. Rather, dynorphin contributed to increased nerve cell activity by reducing the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters onto the NPY cells. In this case, the transmitters act synergistically to excite the NPY cell.

Under the NIH grant, van den Pol and colleagues will study the effects of both naturally occurring neuroactive compounds, as well as man made drugs, to determine how they influence the hypocretin cells, and, ultimately, cognitive arousal.

Source-YALE UniversitySRM
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Drug May Make Breathing Easier for Millions
2. Over Six Million HIV Infected People In South Africa- Finds A Survey
3. Tanzanian Government Sanctions $20 Million For AIDS Arug
4. GlaxoSmithKline to Supply United States with 8 Million flu vaccine, Fluarix
5. Number Of Babies Born Prematurely Nears Historic Half Million Mark In US
6. Proper Validation of Generic Drugs Could Save Millions of AIDS Patients
7. An Estimated 150 Million Indians Suffer From Arthritis
8. Acute Shortage Of Neurosurgeons In India: One Surgeon For Every 1 Million!
9. India To Procure 1 Million Doses Of Tamiflu
10. Global Warming Could Cause 5 Million Illnesses: WHO
11. Australia earmarks $74 Million to Fight Bird Flu
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/4/2016)... ... , ... The Spiritual Care Association (SCA) has declared May 10, ... patients and their families, and their overall contribution to the health care system. It ... has sent “Thank You Chaplain” cards with hand-painted artwork to about 10,000 chaplains and ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... All-Star Insurance of ... assist the people of their local community. The agency pledges to select a ... Their hope is to bring awareness to important local causes with fundraising and ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... Momsense, ... nursing mothers. The company’s patented technology, The Smart Breastfeeding Meter, is designed to ... that the technology is now available for purchase at Target.com . ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... Pharmacy ... announced that it was chosen as the Pharmaceutical News Provider of the Year ... awards acknowledge the hard work and dedication of community members who strive to ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... ... and elbows. Engineered with athletes in mind, OMNIFORCE offers high-performance, less bulk, ... circular knitting, common in the industry) produces premium flat-knit construction with “focused ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/4/2016)... 4, 2016 In March, ... series of free workshops across Africa ... requirements for Good Distribution Practices (GDP). Good Distribution ... that products are consistently stored, transported and handled under ... or product specification. Only a few years ago, there ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... 4, 2016 Research ... "Global Actinic Keratosis Market and Competitive Landscape ...      (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160330/349511LOGO ... Competitive Landscape Highlights 2016, provides comprehensive insights ... epidemiology, Actinic Keratosis market valuations and forecast, ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... from Sino-German High-Tech Fund to further expand product development, strengthen its disease modeling capabilities and increase market presence. ... ... ... ... Sino-German High-Tech ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: