Navigation Links
$1.5 Million Grant to Yale for Narcolepsy-Neurotransmitter Study

Yale School of Medicine researchers have received a $1.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study neurons// that play a major role in narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by daytime sleepiness. The NIH grant will further Yale research into narcolepsy and other disorders linked to neurons that produce the peptide hypocretin.

“The activity of these hypocretin cells is important for enhancing cognitive arousal and resisting sleep, and they may also play a role in anxiety and body weight regulation,” said the principal investigator, Anthony van den Pol, neurosurgery professor.

He said neurons send out long fibers, or axons, to other nerve cells and release either an inhibitor or excitatory neurotransmitter onto their target cells. A small number of these neurons make and secrete the transmitter hypocretin.

Hypocretin neurons actually make two neurotransmitters, hypocretin and dynorphin. The results of Van den Pol’s recent work, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, shows that these two transmitters, or peptides, have actions that oppose each other. Hypocretin increases the excitability of other nerve cells, whereas dynorphin inhibits the activity.

Van den Pol and first author, Ying Li, an associate research scientist, wondered what cellular value opposing neurotransmitters might have. They found that different target neurons in the brain show different responses to co-stimulation by the two peptides.

They came to this finding by using whole cell patch clamp recording, in which an ultra-thin glass pipette, like a very small straw, is used to record the electrical activity caused by movement of ions through channels in single nerve cells.

Van den Pol said that these neurotransmitters had different effects on different cell types. One target, MCH neurons, were excited by hypocretin but inhibited by dynorphin.

“This mi ght suggest that the two neurotransmitters would simply cancel the actions of each other,” van den Pol said. “But, interestingly, in the continuing presence of both neurotransmitters, the inhibitory MCH cell response to dynorphin rapidly declined, whereas the excitatory response to hypocretin persisted.” Therefore, he said, low levels of release of both transmitters might favor inhibition, whereas high levels of release might swing the tide over to excitation and increase cognitive arousal.

However, on another target, NPY neurons, hypocretin directly excited the cells, byt dynorphin had little direct effect. Rather, dynorphin contributed to increased nerve cell activity by reducing the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters onto the NPY cells. In this case, the transmitters act synergistically to excite the NPY cell.

Under the NIH grant, van den Pol and colleagues will study the effects of both naturally occurring neuroactive compounds, as well as man made drugs, to determine how they influence the hypocretin cells, and, ultimately, cognitive arousal.

Source-YALE UniversitySRM
'"/>




Related medicine news :

1. Drug May Make Breathing Easier for Millions
2. Over Six Million HIV Infected People In South Africa- Finds A Survey
3. Tanzanian Government Sanctions $20 Million For AIDS Arug
4. GlaxoSmithKline to Supply United States with 8 Million flu vaccine, Fluarix
5. Number Of Babies Born Prematurely Nears Historic Half Million Mark In US
6. Proper Validation of Generic Drugs Could Save Millions of AIDS Patients
7. An Estimated 150 Million Indians Suffer From Arthritis
8. Acute Shortage Of Neurosurgeons In India: One Surgeon For Every 1 Million!
9. India To Procure 1 Million Doses Of Tamiflu
10. Global Warming Could Cause 5 Million Illnesses: WHO
11. Australia earmarks $74 Million to Fight Bird Flu
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/5/2016)... ... February 05, 2016 , ... ... the company's lighter, sleeker next generation LYNX VR Indoor Trainer with multi-rider capability ... in design and manufacturing not only reduce the weight of the unit, they ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... February 05, 2016 , ... The event is being ... Block Event Center in Minneapolis, Minn. Triumph Over Parkinson’s will fund nearly $100,000 for ... of Schneiderman’s Furniture, lives with Parkinson’s disease and is the architect of this informative ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... , ... February 05, 2016 , ... Looking for a ... be at the tips of your toes. Foot massage, whether administered by a professional ... comfort and relaxation. The American Board of Multiple Specialties in Podiatry (ABMSP) ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... 05, 2016 , ... The Lymphoma Research Foundation (LRF) – ... serving the lymphoma community through a comprehensive series of education programs, outreach initiatives ... Tasting Event at the La Gorce Country Club in Miami Beach on March ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... ... 2016 , ... The American public tends to feel uncomfortable about drinking recycled ... municipal or well water. The recent experience with lead contaminated water in Flint, Michigan, ... way toward increasing public acceptance of recycled waste water as drinking water. , ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/5/2016)... , Feb. 5, 2016  Redwood Scientific Technologies, Inc. ... product designed to help women balance their hormones. This ... technology. Jason Cardiff , President and ... able to help the millions of women across the ... effects of imbalanced hormones. Our research and development team ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... Ontario , Feb. 5, 2016  Aralez Pharmaceuticals ... combination of POZEN Inc. ("POZEN") and Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. ... POZEN and shareholders of Tribute. The combined company will ... pharmaceutical company with operations in Canada ... the United States . Under the terms of ...
(Date:2/5/2016)... -- Dehaier Medical Systems Ltd. (Nasdaq: DHRM ... markets and sells medical devices and wearable sleep ... and international markets, today announced its corporate and ... Company,s resources to develop its mobile health business, ... more on its major businesses. As of this ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: