Navigation Links
Yerkes researchers propose ambitious new strategies for AIDS vaccine research
Date:8/7/2009

Researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, believe conventional vaccine strategies should not be the only avenue explored in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. Based on studying simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) in African nonhuman primates, they propose an additional new approach to the AIDS vaccine research agenda in a commentary featured in the August issue of Nature Medicine. Their recommendations outline specific research priorities and describe how each may lead to a novel "out of the box" approach for developing an AIDS vaccine.

"Developing an effective AIDS vaccine has eluded scientists because the virus is tricky," says Guido Silvestri, MD, a Yerkes affiliate scientist and director of clinical virology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and lead author of the commentary. Silvestri, along with co-author James Else, DVM, associate director for veterinary resources at Yerkes, writes, "Over 25 years after the discovery of HIV as the etiological agent of AIDS, no effective vaccine for the disease is available."

Most vaccines are based on conventional strategies that work by triggering the body's immune system to produce antibodies or killer T cells against the invading organism. The AIDS virus, however, attacks the immune system, leaving it handicapped and unable to mount an immune response. Therefore, conventionally designed AIDS vaccines that have been clinically assessed to date have failed to protect vaccinated individuals from HIV transmission or disease progression. This has been demonstrated in two large-scale clinical trials aimed, respectively, at eliciting HIV specific-antibodies to neutralize the virus and stimulating the immune system's "killer T-cells" to target the virus.

"To put it another way, a conventional vaccine strategy can be compared to using military might to destroy an enemy (in this case, the virus). A less conventional strategy could be to persuade the enemy not to attack you anymore," Silvestri explains. Alternative strategies may include development of AIDS vaccines that make infected individuals resistant to disease progression or resistant to the virus by reducing the number of cells the virus can infect.

Silvestri and Else propose that lessons learned from studying SIVs in their natural nonhuman primate hosts may provide a path to an effective AIDS vaccine. SIVs are found exclusively in African nonhuman primate species and represent the original source of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2). More than 40 species of African monkeys are infected in the wild with SIVs. Yet, virtually none with the exception of chimpanzees progresses to HIV/AIDS or gets sick. Evolution has enabled them to adapt to SIVs and co-exist peacefully with chronic infection.

"Nature is giving us a message," says Silvestri. "Figure out how these monkeys can deal with the virus, and then maybe you can get humans to do the same thing." In particular, Silvestri notes additional studies of sooty managbeys a mediumsized African monkey are critical for the AIDS vaccine effort and understanding why SIV infection does not progress to HIV/AIDS. SIV-infected sooty mangabeys develop a high viral load that does not increase their risk for developing AIDS. Additionally, the SIV virus is rarely transmitted from mothers to babies.

Silvestri also notes that with its large colonies of uninfected and naturally infected sooty mangabeys, "Yerkes has a unique resource for AIDS vaccine research and every effort needs to be made to preserve and expand this colony of animals."

For nearly eight decades, the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, has been dedicated to conducting essential basic science and translational research to advance scientific understanding and to improve the health and well-being of humans and nonhuman primates. Today, the center, as one of only eight National-Institutes of Health-funded national primate research centers, provides leadership, training and resources to foster scientific creativity, collaboration and discoveries. Yerkes-based research is grounded in scientific integrity, expert knowledge, respect for colleagues, and open exchange of ideas and compassionate quality animal care.

Within the fields of microbiology, immunology, neuroscience and psychobiology, the center's research programs are seeking ways to: develop vaccines for infectious and noninfectious diseases, such as AIDS and Alzheimer's disease; treat cocaine addiction; interpret brain activity through imaging; increase understanding of progressive illnesses such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's; unlock the secrets of memory; determine behavioral effects of hormone replacement therapy; address vision disorders; and advance knowledge about the evolutionary links between biology and behavior.


'/>"/>

Contact: Emily Rios
erios@emory.edu
404-727-7732
Emory University
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Yerkes researchers find link between psychological stress and overeating
2. Yerkes researchers create animal model of chronic stress
3. Yerkes researchers use eye tracking to detect mild dementia in humans
4. Stanford researchers find culprit in aging muscles that heal poorly
5. UCLA researchers identify markers that may predict diabetes in still-healthy people
6. Mayo Clinic researchers discover new diagnostic test for detecting infection in prosthetic joints
7. Bipolar disorder relapses halved by Melbourne researchers
8. Cell that triggers symptoms in allergy attacks can also limit damage, Stanford researchers find
9. High and mighty: first common height gene identified by researchers behind obesity gene finding
10. Researchers estimate about 9 percent of US children age 8 to 15 meet criteria for having ADHD
11. Majority of 2.4 Million U.S. Children With ADHD Not Diagnosed or Consistently Treated, According to New Gold Standard Study by Cincinnati Childrens Researchers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Topical BioMedics, Inc, makers of Topricin and MyPainAway Pain Relief ... a minimum wage raise to $12 an hour by 2020 and then adjusting it yearly ... lost value of the minimum wage, assure the wage floor does not erode again, and ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Georgia (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... awards today at the Clinical Decision Making in Emergency Medicine conference in Ponte ... have authored journal articles published in Emergency Medicine Practice and Pediatric ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... Investment Group (TGIG), has initiated cultivation and processing operations at its production facility, ... Pahrump, Nevada. , Puradigm is the manufacturer of a complete system of proactive ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... National recruitment firm Slone Partners ... extensive sequencing and genomics experience, as Vice President of North American Capital Sales at ... responsible for leading the sales team in the commercialization of the HTG EdgeSeq system ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and other difficult to transfect cells, announces ... Medium. The PluriQ™ G9™ Gene Editing System is a complete system ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... 2016   Pulmatrix, Inc ., (NASDAQ: ... drugs, announced today that it was added to the ... its comprehensive set of U.S. and global equity indexes ... important milestone for Pulmatrix," said Chief Executive Officer ... our progress in developing drugs for crucial unmet medical ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition ... 2022" report to their offering. ... with kidney failure, it replaces the function of kidneys by ... and thus the treatment helps to keep the patient body,s ... Increasing number of ESRD patients & substantial healthcare ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Roche (SIX: ... 510(k) clearance for its Elecsys BRAHMS PCT (procalcitonin) assay ... sepsis or septic shock. With this clearance, Roche is ... a fully integrated solution for sepsis risk assessment and ... with bacterial infection and PCT levels in blood can ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: