The cross-sectional survey was performed in 2004 among the general working population in the southeast of France. The study population was a random sample of 3,132 men and 4,562 women with a mean age of 40 years. Workplace bullying was evaluated using the French version of the Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror, which measures the experience of 45 forms of bullying. Participants also reported whether or not they perceived themselves as being exposed to "hostile behavior on the part of one or more persons in the work environment that aim continually and repeatedly to offend, oppress, maltreat, or to exclude or isolate over a long period of time."
Sleep disturbances - defined as either trouble initiating sleep or trouble returning to sleep after a premature awakening were reported by a self-administered questionnaire. Results indicate that 22.3 percent of women and 17.08 percent of men reported having "some or a great deal of trouble" sleeping.
According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, the presence of a sleep disturbance in association with an identifiable stressor is the essential feature of adjustment insomnia. Common stressors include occupational stress and disputes in interpersonal relationships. The sleep disturbance may be accompanied by waking symptoms such as anxiety, worry, depression, muscle tension and headaches. Typically adjustment insomnia has a short course that lasts no more than three months, but the sleep disturbance may persist if the precipitating stressor fails to resolve or if the individual is unable to adapt to a chronic stressor. Among adults the one-year prevalence of adjustment insomnia is
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American Academy of Sleep Medicine