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Wealth of orchid varieties is down to busy bees and helpful fungi, says study
Date:1/31/2011

ogy at Imperial College London, co-led an international team of plant scientists to investigate how these interactions affect orchid diversity. "Orchids are hyper-diverse globally, particularly in South Africa, where they have diversified to a large extent, so we wanted to find out how lots of species are able to exist without competition," he said.

The group studied 52 orchid species in a small region of South Africa, which all secrete oil inside their flowers that female bees collect to feed to their larvae. In order to investigate which pollinating bees were visiting the different species, they collected orchid pollen from the bees for DNA sequencing and analysis. They found strong evidence that when an orchid moved to a new geographical area it adapted to a different pollinating bee species, and interestingly, some competing orchid species were able to adapt by placing pollen on different body parts of the same bee.

"What is remarkable in these orchids is that diversity is generated not only through switches between bees, but also by switches between different body parts of the same bee, so two closely related orchids might place pollen on different segments of one bee's front leg," added Professor Barraclough. "It's given us a fundamental insight into how so many new species can originate, and once they originate how they are able to coexist without exchanging genes."

The researchers also studied the microscopic fungi living on the roots of the orchid, to see how this relationship was affecting plant diversity. Most flowering plants host microscopic fungi in their roots that help the plant take up nutrients from the soil. Until now it has been difficult to investigate this interaction, as most of the fungi belong to species that are difficult to culture. The researchers overcame this challenge by combining a molecular technique known as DNA barcoding with field experiments. In contrast to the bees, where co-occurring orchid speci
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Contact: Simon Levey
s.levey@imperial.ac.uk
44-207-594-6702
Imperial College London
Source:Eurekalert  

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Wealth of orchid varieties is down to busy bees and helpful fungi, says study
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